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Table 5 Subgroup Analysis of the Effect of Intervention Elements on Nipple Pain

From: The effectiveness of the laid-back position on lactation-related nipple problems and comfort: a meta-analysis

Subgroups Number of studies Participants (n) Heterogeneity test outcomes Effects model Meta-analysis Interaction
p-value
(Experimental/Control) p-value I2
(%)
RR (95% CI)
Intervention        0.51
 LBBF 5 [37,38,39, 41, 43] 368/368 0.000 96.9% Random 0.23 (0.06, 0.94)  
 LBBF +SSC 3 [44, 45, 47] 172/168 0.096 57.3% Random 0.39 (0.21, 0.71)  
Deliver mode        0.97
 Vaginal delivery 1 [45] 48/48 Random 0.27 (0.15, 0.51)  
 Vaginal delivery & caesarean 7 [37,38,39, 41, 43, 44, 47] 492/488 0.000 94.9% Random 0.28 (0.12, 0.66)  
Maternal category        0.14
 Primipara 1 [44] 74/70 Random 0.57 (0.39, 0.84)  
 Primipara & multipara 7 [37,38,39, 41, 43, 45, 47] 466/466 0.000 95.6% Random 0.24 (0.08, 0.70)