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Table 4 Subgroup Analysis of the Effect of Intervention Elements on Nipple Trauma

From: The effectiveness of the laid-back position on lactation-related nipple problems and comfort: a meta-analysis

Subgroups Number of studies Participants (n) Heterogeneity test outcomes Effects model Meta-analysis Interaction
p-value
(Experimental/Control) p-value I2
(%)
RR (95% CI)
Intervention        0.24
 LBBF 4 [38,39,40, 43] 333/333 0.023 68.5% Random 0.68 (0.47, 0.99)  
 LBBF +SSC 3 [46,47,48] 304/304 0.000 90.2% Random 0.24 (0.04, 1.31)  
Deliver mode        0.37
 Caesarean 1 [40] 100/100 Random 0.32 (0.13, 0.76)  
 Vaginal delivery & caesarean 6 [38, 39, 43, 46,47,48] 537/537 0.000 85.8% Random 0.50 (0.30, 0.82)  
Maternal category        0.37
 Primipara 1 [40] 100/100 Random 0.32 (0.13, 0.76)  
 Primipara & multipara 6 [38, 39, 43, 46,47,48] 537/537 0.000 85.8% Random 0.50 (0.30, 0.82)