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Table 3 Results of critical appraisal for the quasi-experimental studies (JBI, 2016)

From: The effectiveness of the laid-back position on lactation-related nipple problems and comfort: a meta-analysis

Questions (potential bias) Lu et al. (2019) [48]
1. Is it clear in the study what is the ‘cause’ and what is the ‘effect’? (causation/reverse causation) Yes
2. Were the participants included in any comparisons similar? (selection bias) Yes
3. Were the participants included in any comparisons receiving similar treatment/care, other than the intervention of interest? (history threat/systematic difference/contamination bias) Yes
4. Was there a control group? (measurement bias) Yes
5. Were there multiple measurements of the outcome both before and after the intervention? (maturation threat, regression to the mean) Yes
6. Was follow-up complete, and if not, was follow-up adequately reported and strategies to deal with loss to follow-up employed? (attrition bias) Yes
7. Were the outcomes of participants included in any comparisons measured in the same way? (instrumentation/testing effects threats) Yes
8. Were outcomes measured in a reliable way? (detection/instrument/measurement bias) Yes
9. Was appropriate statistical analysis used? (performance / detection bias) Yes