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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis

From: The effectiveness of the laid-back position on lactation-related nipple problems and comfort: a meta-analysis

Author
(year)
Sample size(n)
(E/C)
Study design Vaginal delivery/Caesarean (n) Primipara/Multipara (n) Gestational weeks
(Mean ± SD) (E/C)
Age of mother (years) (Mean ± SD)
(E/C)
Intervention (E/C) Age of infant Intervention period Outcomes
E C E C
Zhuang (2019) [37] 75/75 RCT 38/37 35/40 26.2 ± 4.7/
25.3 ± 4.5
Laid-back breastfeeding (BN) /Traditional breastfeeding position 0 day 1-8w Nipple pain
Shi et al. (2017) [38] 84/84 RCT 50/34 52/32 56/28 55/29 36–39/
36–40
27.98 ± 4.25/
28.51 ± 4.69
Laid-back breastfeeding (BN) /Traditional breastfeeding position 1-3d Nipple pain, Nipple trauma
Li et al. (2017) [39] 100/100 RCT 64/36 68/32 60/40 64/36 38–40/
37–40
27.86 ± 4.25/
27.43 ± 4.17
Laid-back breastfeeding (BN) /Traditional breastfeeding position <3d 1-3d Nipple pain, Nipple trauma, Position Comfort, Correct latching position
Yu et al. (2019) [40] 100/100 RCT 0/100 0/100 100/0 100/0 39.06 ± 1.08/ 39.33 ± 1.06 27.43 ± 4.14/ 27.40 ± 3.81 Laid-back breastfeeding (BN) /Cradle breastfeeding (Traditonal position) 0 day 1-3d Nipple trauma, Position Comfort
Zeng et al. (2019) [41] 60/60 RCT 42/18 44/16 39.35 ± 1.23/39.42 ± 1.13 26.75 ± 4.23/
27.28 ± 4.42
Laid-back breastfeeding (BN) /Cradle breastfeeding (Traditonal position) 0 day 1d-4w Nipple pain
Puapornpong et al. (2017) [42] 76/76 RCT 0/76 0/76 38.5 ± 0.9/38.6 ± 1.0 27.5 ± 5.9/
27.1 ± 6.1
Laid-back breastfeeding (BN)
/Side-Lying Breastfeeding (Traditonal position)
0 day 1d-6w Position Comfort
Liu et al. (2019) [43] 49/49 RCT Laid-back breastfeeding (BN)
/Traditional breastfeeding position
1-4w Nipple pain, Nipple trauma
Zhang (2019) [44] 74/70 RCT 58/16 56/14 74/0 70/0 38.89 ± 0.96/
39.09 ± 0.97
25.82 ± 3.43/
26.16 ± 3.62
Laid-back breastfeeding (BN + SSC)
/Cradle breastfeeding (Traditonal position)
0 day 1d-6w Nipple pain, Correct latching position
Zhao (2019) [45] 48/48 RCT 48/0 48/0 39.57 ± 1.06/
39.40 ± 1.11
26.31 ± 2.82/
27.27 ± 3.83
Laid-back breastfeeding (BN + SSC)
/Traditional breastfeeding position
0 day 1-3d Nipple pain
Liang et al. (2017) [46] 200/200 RCT 200/0 200/0 Laid-back breastfeeding (BN + SSC)
/Traditional breastfeeding position
0 day 1-3d Nipple trauma
Wang (2019) [47] 50/50 RCT 27/23 30/20 34/16 32/18 27.9 ± 2.3/
27.7 ± 2.1
Laid-back breastfeeding (BN + SSC)
/Standard care (Traditonal position)
0 day 0-1 m Nipple pain, Nipple trauma
Lu et al. (2019) [48] 54/54 Q-RCT 26/28 25/29 38.95 ± 0.45/
39.50 ± 0.50
26.88 ± 3.32/
26.76 ± 3.25
Laid-back Breastfeeding (BN + SSC)
/Standard care (Traditonal position)
0 day 0-1w Nipple trauma, Position Comfort, Correct latching position
  1. E experimental group, C control group, h hour, d day, w week, m month, SD standard deviation