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Table 5 Maternal characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among the 64 pregnant women by geographic locations

From: Current trends and geographical differences in therapeutic profile and outcomes of COVID-19 among pregnant women - a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Asia USA Europe Latin America
Proportion
(95% CI)
Proportion
(95% CI)
Proportion
(95% CI)
Proportion
(95% CI)
Maternal Characteristics
 Age (years); mean (95% CI) 30.00 (28.70, 31.20) 30.90 (27.30, 34.50) 32.8 (30.10, 35.40) 32.2 (29.50, 34.90)
 BMI (kg/m2); mean (95% CI) 33.70 (5.20, 62.30) 37.0 (30.20, 43.90) 41.4 (32.70, 50.10) 28.9 (25.80, 32.00)
 Gestational age (weeks); mean (95% CI) 36.20 (34.60, 37.80) 28.40 (25.50, 31.30) 33.4 (30.50, 36.30) 29.2 (25.80, 32.50)
Symptomatic Presentation 0.80 (0.59, 0.93) 1.00 (0.77, 1.00) 1.00 (0.75, 1.00) 0.78 (0.40, 0.97)
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 0.09 (0.00, 0.41) 0.40 (0.12, 0.74) 0.38 (0.14, 0.68) 0.00 (0.00, 0.34)
 Hypertension 0.00 (0.00, 0.28) 0.10 (0.00, 0.45) 0.23 (0.05, 0.54) 0.00 (0.00, 0.34)
 Asthma 0.00 (0.00, 0.28) 0.40 (0.12, 0.74) 0.00 (0.00, 0.25) 0.00 (0.00, 0.34)
 Obesity 0.09 (0.00, 0.41) 0.56 (0.21, 0.86) 0.25 (0.05, 0.57) NA
Treatment Profiles
 Oxygen support 0.40 (0.21, 0.61) 0.73 (0.45, 0.92) 0.69 (0.39, 0.91) 0.33 (0.07, 0.70)
 Steroids 0.40 (0.21, 0.61) 0.71 (0.42, 0.92) 0.46 (0.19, 0.75) 0.11 (0.00, 0.48)
 Immunosuppressants 0.04 (0.00, 0.21) 0.33 (0.12, 0.62) 0.00 (0.00, 0.25) 0.00 (0.00, 0.34)
 Hydroxychloroquine 0.13 (0.03, 0.32) 0.40 (0.16, 0.68) 0.23 (0.05, 0.54) 0.44 (0.14, 0.79)
 Antivirals 0.60 (0.39, 0.79) 0.47 (0.21, 0.73) 0.23 (0.05, 0.54) 0.33 (0.07, 0.70)
 Zinc/Magnesium 0.12 (0.03, 0.31) 0.36 (0.13, 0.65) 0.38 (0.14, 0.68) 0.00 (0.00, 0.34)
 Anticoagulants 0.08 (0.01, 0.26) 0.08 (0.00, 0.38) 0.15 (0.02, 0.45) 0.22 (0.03, 0.60)
 Antibiotics 0.80 (0.59, 0.93) 0.53 (0.27, 0.79) 0.62 (0.32, 0.86) 0.44 (0.14, 0.79)
 Plasma therapy/Anti-liver damage 0.20 (0.07, 0.41) 0.20 (0.04, 0.48) 0.08 (0.00, 0.36) 0.00 (0.00, 0.34)
 Mechanical ventilation 0.16 (0.05, 0.36) 0.67 (0.38, 0.88) 0.38 (0.14, 0.68) 0.33 (0.07, 0.70)
Maternal & Pregnancy Outcomes
 ICU admission 0.28 (0.12, 0.49) 0.80 (0.52, 0.96) 0.38 (0.14, 0.68) 0.33 (0.07, 0.70)
 HLOS (days) mean (95% CI) 19.10 (13.50, 24.80) 12.60 (9.50, 15.70) 11.00 (5.00, 17.00) 14.20 (2.30, 26.20)
 Cesarean section 0.68 (0.46, 0.85) 0.67 (0.38, 0.88) 0.69 (0.39, 0.91) 0.78 (0.40, 0.97)
 Maternal death 0.00 (0.00, 0.14) 0.00 (0.00, 0.22) 0.00 (0.00, 0.25) 0.33 (0.07, 0.70)
 Fetal demise 0.00 (0.00, 0.14) 0.00 (0.00, 0.25) 0.00 (0.00, 0.25) 0.56 (0.21, 0.86)
 Premature birth 0.44 (0.24, 0.65) 0.69 (0.41, 0.89) 0.54 (0.25, 0.81) 0.33 (0.07, 0.70)
 Neonatal death 0.04 (0.00, 0.20) 0.00 (0.00, 0.21) 0.00 (0.00, 0.23) 0.00 (0.00, 0.34)
  1. Note: Asia includes China, India, Iran, Jordon, and Korea; Europe includes France, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and United Kingdom; South America includes Brazil and Peru
  2. CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit, HLOS hospital length of stay, BMI body mass index, NA not available, USA United States of America