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Table 3 Meta-analysis of maternal characteristics, therapeutics, and outcomes by geographic location

From: Current trends and geographical differences in therapeutic profile and outcomes of COVID-19 among pregnant women - a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Asia USA Europe
N I2 Proportion
(95% CI)
N I2 Proportion
(95% CI)
N I2 Proportion
(95% CI)
Maternal Characteristics
 Age (years); mean (95% CI)a 10 NA 28.40 (24.80, 32.10) 5 NA 30.80 (29.60, 31.90) 7 NA 30.60 (28.90, 32.40)
 BMI (kg/m2); mean (95% CI)a 1 NA 27.00 (single study) 4 NA 30.60 (30.40, 31.00) 5 NA 29.40 (27.30, 31.70)
 Gestational age (weeks); mean (95% CI)a 9 NA 34.80 (32.40, 37.20) 4 NA 31.90 (26.20, 37.70) 8 NA 31.30 (28.80, 33.80)
Symptomatic Presentation 6 0.0 1.00 (0.96, 1.00) 4 97.1 0.54 (0.21, 0.85) 8 93.4 0.92 (0.80, 0.99)
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 6 46.1 0.07 (0.02, 0.14) 5 26.0 0.06 (0.03, 0.09) 6 45.2 0.03 (0.01, 0.06)
 Hypertension 6 16.5 0.03 (0.00, 0.07) 5 82.8 0.07 (0.01, 0.15) 6 21.8 0.03 (0.01, 0.06)
 Asthma 6 0.0 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 5 24.2 0.07 (0.04, 0.11) 6 79.6 0.05 (0.01, 0.11)
 Obesity 5 0.0 0.00 (0.00, 0.03) 3 ID 0.20 (0.10, 0.32) 5 64.8 0.11 (0.06, 0.19)
Treatment
 Oxygen support 9 94.9 0.55 (0.20, 0.88) 5 59.0 0.07 (0.03, 0.12) 6 84.2 0.33 (0.21, 0.46)
 Steroids 9 73.5 0.05 (0.00, 0.16) 4 83.8 0.01 (0.00, 0.09) 8 98.8 0.10 (0.00, 0.44)
 Immunosuppressants 9 0.0 0.00 (0.00, 0.02) 4 87.9 0.02 (0.00, 0.11) 7 83.3 0.02 (0.00, 0.07)
 Hydroxychloroquine 9 43.2 0.00 (0.00, 0.04) 5 84.0 0.07 (0.02, 0.17) 8 96.6 0.26 (0.09, 0.49)
 Antivirals 9 89.8 0.80 (0.56, 0.97) 4 59.1 0.01 (0.00, 0.05) 8 89.8 0.12 (0.04, 0.22)
 Zinc/Magnesium 9 78.5 0.02 (0.00, 0.11) 4 0.0 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 8 99.0 0.05 (0.00, 0.39)
 Anticoagulant 9 67.9 0.02 (0.00, 0.09) 4 92.2 0.03 (0.00, 0.17) 8 91.8 0.04 (0.00, 0.12)
 Antibiotics 9 95.4 0.78 (0.41, 1.00) 5 84.3 0.12 (0.04, 0.22) 8 94.1 0.14 (0.04, 0.29)
 Plasma therapy/Anti-liver damage 9 93.1 0.06 (0.00, 0.3) 5 20.3 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 8 81.3 0.01 (0.00, 0.04)
 Mechanical ventilation 9 86.8 0.04 (0.00, 0.18) 4 84.6 0.02 (0.00, 0.11) 8 0.0 0.06 (0.04, 0.08)
Maternal & Pregnancy Outcomes
 ICU admission 8 87.9 0.05 (0.00, 0.23) 4 88.8 0.06 (0.00, 0.19) 8 52.7 0.07 (0.04, 0.11)
 HLOS (days) mean (95% CI)a 2 NA 11.86 (8.55, 15.17) 4 NA 9.40 (2.96, 15.83) 5 NA 7.34 (5.46, 9.23)
 Maternal death 10 71.5 0.01 (0.00, 0.07) 5 20.3 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 8 32.9 0.01 (0.00, 0.02)
 Cesarean section 10 85.1 0.80 (0.61, 0.94) 5 0.0 0.46 (0.39, 0.53) 8 72.3 0.53 (0.41, 0.66)
 Fetal demise 2 ID 0.02 (0.00, 0.05) 2 ID 0.01 (0, 0.04) 1 ID 0.02 (0.00, 0.10)
 Premature birth 8 77.8 0.35 (0.17, 0.55) 5 0.0 0.13 (0.09, 0.18) 6 65.1 0.29 (0.20, 0.40)
  1. Note: aWeighted mean reported; Asia includes China, India and Iran; Europe includes France, Italy, Spain and Turkey
  2. I2 % measure of heterogeneity, CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit, HLOS hospital length of stay, ID insufficient data, NA not applicable, BMI body mass index, USA United States of America