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Table 5 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression models for childbirth with a skilled attendant and empowerment measures and location after controlling for sociodemographic factors

From: The association of empowerment measures with maternal, child and family planning outcomes in Plateau State Nigeria by urban-rural residence

Sociodemographic Factors Full Sample Urban Sample Rural Sample
OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI)
Age group (Ref: 25–29)
 15–19 0.41+ (0.16–1.07) 0.49 (0.13–1.87) 0.35 (0.09–1.34)
 20–24 0.71 (0.44–1.17) 0.73 (0.38–1.39) 0.69 (0.33–1.45)
 30–34 0.89 (0.61–1.30) 1.14 (0.66–1.97) 0.55 + (0.29–1.06)
 35+ 1.05 (0.67–1.64) 1.38 (0.77–2.46) 0.65 (0.28–1.53)
Parity (Ref: 0–1)
 2 0.46** (0.29–0.73) 0.38 ** (0.20–0.71) 0.58 (0.29–1.17)
 3–4 0.27 *** (0.16–0.44) 0.27 *** (0.14–0.52) 0.30 ** (0.14–0.65)
 5+ 0.27 *** (0.15–0.50) 0.22 *** (0.10–0.49) 0.39 * (0.16–0.97)
Education level (Ref: None/Non-standard)
 Primary 0.54 * (0.33–0.86) 0.52 + (0.27–1.02) 0.64 (0.29–1.39)
 Secondary or higher 0.87 (0.54–1.40) 0.89 (0.47–1.70) 0.90 (0.40–2.00)
Wealth quintile (Ref: Middle)
 Lowest 0.61 + (0.35–1.04) 0.72 (0.36–1.48) 0.48 + (0.21–1.10)
 Second 0.50 ** (0.31–0.83) 0.40 * (0.19–0.84) 0.63 (0.31–1.31)
 Fourth 1.39 (0.87–2.22) 1.70 (0.85–3.39) 0.98 (0.50–1.90)
 Highest 2.03 ** (1.28–3.23) 1.82 * (1.01–3.29) 2.33 * (1.11–4.91)
Religion (Ref: Christian/Catholic)
 Muslim/Other 0.18*** (0.12–0.28) 0.13*** (0.08–0.20) 0.26** (0.11–0.62)
Location (Ref: Jos)
 Other Urban 0.74 (0.44–1.27) NA NA
 Rural 0.22 *** (0.13–0.35) NA NA
Jos (Ref: No)    
 Yes NA 1.28 (0.77–2.14) NA
Gender Equality Measures
Household Decision Making 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 1.00 (0.81–1.23) 0.94 (0.79–1.12)
Financial Decision-making 1.14 (0.83–1.56) 1.15 (0.79–1.67) 1.10 (0.63–1.94)
Prohibitions 0.57 ** (0.39–0.830 0.62* (0.41–0.94) 0.53 (0.19–1.46)
Wife-beating Acceptable 1.38+ (0.96–2.00) 0.82 (0.51–1.32) 1.94 ** (1.23–3.06)
  1. The significance test is compared across the places of residence
  2. The unweighted counts were 1058 for full sample, 608for urban, and 450 for rural areas
  3. +p < 0.10 *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001