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Table 3 Relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals from multinomial logistic regression model for use of family planning methods and empowerment measures and location after controlling for sociodemographic factors among women in union from Plateau State, Nigeria, 2017

From: The association of empowerment measures with maternal, child and family planning outcomes in Plateau State Nigeria by urban-rural residence

Sociodemographic Factors Traditional Method vs. Non-User Modern Method vs. Non-User
Full Sample Urban Sample Rural Sample Full Sample Urban Sample Rural Sample
RRR (CI) RRR (CI) RRR (CI) RRR (CI) RRR (CI) RRR (CI)
Age group (Ref: 25–29)
 15–19 1.36 (0.31–5.79) 0.73 (0.07–7.29) 2.63 (0.33–20.96) 1.41 (0.63–3.17) 1.96 (0.66–5.82) 1.10 (0.32–3.75)
 20–24 1.71 (0.86–3.40) 2.11+ (0.98–4.55) 0.86 (0.21–3.46) 1.50+ (0.99–2.27) 1.35 (0.72–2.53) 1.64+ (0.95–2.84)
 30–34 1.14 (0.64–2.00) 1.16 (0.64–2.09) 0.95 (0.14–6.27) 1.10 (0.75–1.61) 1.03 (0.65–1.64) 1.00 (0.51–1.95)
 35+ 0.70 (0.39–1.28) 0.64 (0.33–1.26) 0.91 (0.23–3.50) 0.52*** (0.36–0.73) 0.49** (0.33–0.74) 0.48* (0.24–0.95)
Parity (Ref: 0–1)
 2 2.76** (1.41–5.40) 2.61* (1.23–5.55) 4.77+ (0.96–23.67) 3.43*** (2.34–5.03) 3.65*** (2.25–5.93) 3.26** (1.63–6.50)
 3–4 2.65** (1.35–5.21) 2.83** (1.35–5.95) 2.85 (0.43–18.68) 5.92*** (4.05–8.66) 7.02*** (4.45–11.05) 4.93*** (2.61–9.31)
 5+ 3.47** (1.63–7.39) 2.86* (1.16–7.06) 6.69* (1.04–42.97) 10.24*** (6.48–16.18) 9.99*** (5.54–18.01) 13.5*** (6.05–30.19)
Education level (Ref: None/Non-standard)
 Primary 3.51** (1.43–8.60) 3.42* (1.25–9.33) 3.48 (0.54–22.30) 1.38 (0.88–2.19) 0.86 (0.47–1.58) 2.41** (1.29–4.49)
 Secondary or higher 3.90** (1.71–8.90) 3.23* (1.26, 8.30) 5.71+ (0.81–40.24) 1.70* (1.11–2.59) 1.23 (0.68–2.22) 2.89** (1.49–5.61)
Wealth quintile (Ref: Middle)
 Lowest 0.30* (0.12–0.76) 0.30* (0.09–0.95) 0.30 (0.05–1.79) 0.81 (0.51–1.26) 0.83 (0.47–1.45) 0.87 (0.45–1.67)
 Second 0.30** (0.14–0.68) 0.27** (0.10–0.69) 0.44 (0.09–2.13) 0.70+ (0.48–1.02) 0.64+ (0.40–1.04) 0.81 (0.43–1.52)
 Fourth 0.75 (0.46–1.23) 0.65 (0.38–1.11) 0.87 (0.22–3.34) 0.98 (0.68–1.40) 0.83 (0.50–1.37) 1.13 (0.69–1.85)
 Highest 1.02 (0.59–1.78) 0.93 (0.50–1.72) 1.05 (0.28–3.85) 1.06 (0.76–1.48) 0.83 (0.55–1.24) 1.58 (0.83–3.01)
Religion (Ref: Christian/Catholic)
 Muslim/Other 0.97 (0.60–1.58) 0.95 (0.54–1.69) 1.10 (0.34–3.52) 0.24*** (0.15, 0.39) 0.18*** (0.12–0.28) 0.47 (0.19–1.18)
Location (Ref: Jos)
 Other Urban 0.77 (0.37–1.62) 0.81 (0.38–1.73) NA 0.68+ (0.43–1.05) 0.60* (0.38–0.95) NA
 Rural 0.40** (0.23–0.68) NA NA 0.53** (0.36–0.80) NA NA
Gender Equality Measures
Household Decision Making 1.10 (−) 1.17 (−) 0.93 (−) 1.16** (−) 1.14* (−) 1.18* (−)
Financial Decision-making 2.13** (1.31–3.48) 1.84* (1.04–3.27) 3.67* (1.19–11.26) 1.13 (0.89–1.43) 1.13 (0.82–1.55) 1.04 (0.72–1.50)
Prohibitions 0.55+ (0.30–1.02) 0.52+ (0.27–1.00) 0.68 (0.08–5.56) 0.65+ (0.41–1.04) 0.49* (0.29–0.85) 1.50 (0.63–3.59)
Wife-beating Acceptable 0.86 (0.54–1.37) 0.63 (0.31–1.28) 1.23 (0.55–2.74) 1.07 (0.81–1.40) 0.99 (0.68–1.43) 1.07 (0.71–1.62)
  1. The significance test is compared across the places of residence
  2. The unweighted counts were 1981 for full sample, 1192 for urban, and 789 for rural areas
  3. +p < 0.10 *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001