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Table 3 Demographic, maternal, and neonatal characteristics of infants that died up to 27 days after birth with perinatal asphyxia in each year of the study, São Paulo State, Brazil: 2004–2013

From: Neonatal mortality associated with perinatal asphyxia: a population-based study in a middle-income country

  Ignoreda
(%)
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 p-value#
n = 849 n = 794 n = 722 n = 687 n = 640 n = 646 n = 624 n = 553 n = 566 n = 567
Place and time of birth
 Birth at mother’s home municipality 0 77% 77% 78% 76% 76% 75% 77% 77% 74% 75% 0.202
 Birth at hospital 0.02 98% 99% 98% 99% 98% 98% 99% 98% 97% 99% 0.733
 Birth at public hospital 3.7 83% 83% 81% 82% 81% 81% 81% 75% 81% 80% 0.011
 Birth on Saturday/Sunday 0 27% 25% 28% 26% 27% 26% 26% 30% 24% 28% 0.682
 Birth from 7:00 am to 6:59 pm 0.5 59% 60% 55% 57% 58% 58% 55% 63% 57% 57% 0.654
Place and time of death
 Death at the same municipality of birth 0 94% 94% 94% 91% 92% 91% 92% 93% 92% 93% 0.207
 Death at hospital 0.02 96% 96% 94% 94% 99% 92% 98% 97% 97% 98% 0.013
 Death at the same birth hospital 6.4 91% 90% 87% 87% 89% 86% 89% 89% 87% 90% 0.392
 Death until 59 min after birth 0 12% 14% 10% 10% 10% 11% 12% 13% 12% 10% 0.805
Maternal data
 Maternal age < 20 years 0 22% 24% 22% 20% 19% 21% 18% 19% 18% 23% 0.039
 Mother has a partner 5.1 42% 39% 37% 35% 33% 32% 32% 38% 49% 56% < 0.001
 Maternal schooling ≥8 years 2.5 60% 59% 61% 68% 69% 70% 74% 88% 73% 68% < 0.001
 Primiparity 8.1 38% 38% 39% 42% 21% 44% 47% 36% 43% 47% < 0.001
 Prenatal visits ≥4 2.9 74% 74% 74% 75% 75% 72% 73% 77% 72% 75% 0.944
 Multiple gestation 0 7% 10% 8% 7% 8% 7% 10% 10% 7% 13% 0.034
 Cesarean section 0.02 49% 50% 47% 51% 50% 51% 49% 54% 52% 53% 0.019
Neonatal data
 Gestational age 37–41 weeks 0 40% 39% 39% 39% 37% 39% 36% 37% 35% 31% < 0.001
 Birth weight ≥ 2500 g 03 39% 39% 36% 39% 35% 36% 35% 38% 37% 33% 0.048
 Birth weight 500-1499 g 0.3 45% 48% 50% 45% 50% 50% 50% 50% 46% 52% 0.021
 Male 0 53% 57% 55% 55% 53% 54% 59% 58% 59% 58% 0.019
 Non-white 0.6 25% 28% 29% 27% 26% 29% 29% 30% 27% 25% 0.689
 1st minute Apgar Score 0–3 8.3 70% 69% 66% 70% 67% 70% 67% 74% 73% 71% 0.050
 5th minute Apgar Score 0–6 8.1 67% 65% 65% 66% 63% 68% 65% 70% 70% 66% 0.240
  1. a % of 6648 deaths without information for each variable #refers to chi-square test for linear trend