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Table 2 Logistic regression on MCH utilisation

From: Are Ghanaian women meeting the WHO recommended maternal healthcare (MCH) utilisation? Evidence from a national survey

Variables Utilised Skilled ANC provider Utilised Skilled Birth Attendant Utilised Post-natal Care with 24 h Utilised all three
AOR (CI) AOR (CI) AOR (CI) AOR (CI)
Age
 15 – 19 2.50 (0.81-7.71) 1.76 (0.91-3.39) 0.52 (0.26-1.03) 0.77 (0.38-1.58)
 20 – 24 1.05 (0.64-1.71) 1.21 (0.88-1.68) 0.94 (0.71-1.24) 0.95 (0.70-1.30)
 25 – 29 1.10 (0.71-1.71) 1.13 (0.85-1.49) 0.72** (0.57-0.92) 0.74* (0.57-0.96)
 30 – 34 Ref Ref Ref Ref
 35 – 39 0.79 (0.51-1.22) 1.38* (1.02-1.87) 0.71** (0.55-0.92) 0.74* (0.56-0.97)
 40 – 44 0.98 (0.57-1.68) 1.45* (1.01-2.08) 0.82 (0.59-1.11) 0.94 (0.67-1.32)
 45 – 49 0.55 (0.30-1.02) 1.01 (0.63-1.62) 0.67 (0.42-1.09) 0.72 (0.42-1.24)
Place of residence
 Urban Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Rural 0.58** (0.38-0.90) 0.45*** (0.34-0.60) 1.08 (0.86-1.37) 0.94 (0.73-1.22)
Level of education
 No education 0.94 (0.62-1.41) 0.49*** (0.38-0.60) 1.29* (1.01-1.65) 1.35* (1.03-1.77)
 Primary 0.91 (0.59-1.39) 0.73** (0.55-0.97) 1.54** (1.19-1.97) 1.31 (0.99-1.73)
 Secondary Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Higher 1.57 (0.20-12.05) 1 1.31 (0.86-1.99) 1.40 (0.91-2.13)
Covered by health insurance
 No 0.94 (0.68-1.28) 0.63*** (0.51-0.78) 0.84 (0.69-1.03) 0.76** (0.61-0.96)
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all 0.92 (0.61-1.36) 0.63** (0.48-0.82) 0.91 (0.70-1.16) 0.92 (0.69-1.21)
 Less than once a week 0.69 (0.49-1.16) 0.70** (0.56-0.89) 0.83 (0.67-1.03) 0.81 (0.64-1.02)
 At least once a week Ref Ref Ref Ref
Frequency of watching television
 Not at all 0.78 (0.51-1.20) 1.05 (0.79-1.36) 0.94 (0.73-1.21) 0.81 (0.61-1.078)
 Less than once a week 0.69* (0.49-0.98) 0.86 (0.65-1.15) 0.86 (0.67-1.11) 0.74* (0.56-0.97)
 At least once a week Ref Ref Ref Ref
Wealth status
 Poorest Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Poorer 1.38 (0.93-2.00) 1.11 (0.86-1.43) 0.76* (0.58-0.99) 0.72* (0.53-0.97)
 Middle 1.40 (0.85-2.31) 1.67** (1.20-2.32) 0.92 (0.67-1.25) 0.97 (0.69-1.36)
 Richer 2.44* (1.16-5.13) 5.05*** (3.03-8.43) 0.98 (0.69-1.39) 1.17 (0.80-1.71)
 Richest 9.39** (2.06-42.78) 4.92*** (2.48-9.77) 1.12 (0.75-1.68) 1.31 (0.85-2.01)
Antenatal care visits
 Less than 4 0.22*** (0.16-0.30) 0.24*** (0.18-0.32) 0.87 (0.64-1.16) 0.51** (0.34-0.75)
 4 or more Ref Ref Ref Ref
Marital status
 Married Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Living with partner 0.69* (0.48-0.99) 0.76* (0.59-0.99) 0.59*** (0.46-0.76) 0.65** (0.49-0.86)
 Widowed 0.95 (0.43-2.12) 0.66 (0.36-1.21) 1.55 (0.89-2.67) 1.50 (0.82-2.75)
 Divorced 1.43 (0.41-5.0) 3.82** (1.48-9.90) 0.98 (0.48-2.00) 1.23 (0.57-2.65)
 Separated 0.70 (0.33-1.46) 0.97 (0.57-1.65) 0.77 (0.47-1.25) 0.70 (0.40-1.22)
Getting medical help for self: getting permission to go
 Big problem 1.09 (0.64-1.87) 1.25 (0.84-1.85) 0.38*** (0.24-0.61) 0.38** (0.22-0.67)
 Not a big problem Ref Ref Ref Ref
Getting medical help for self: getting money needed for treatment
 Big problem 0.54*** (0.39-0.76) 0.90 (0.72-1.12) 0.87 (0.71-1.07) 0.94 (0.75-1.18)
 Not a big problem Ref Ref Ref Ref
Getting medical help for self: distance to health facility
 Big problem 1.17 (0.84-1.62) 0.66*** (0.53-0.83) 0.99 (0.79-1.23) 0.74** (0.57-0.95)
 Not a big problem Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1. Ref Reference Category, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  2. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 **p < 0.001