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Table 2 Sleep disturbancies, physical and mental QoL and associations with NVP. Total n = 1203

From: Sleep quality in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

  All    No NVP Mild NVP Moderate NVP Severe NVP
     PUQE 3 points PUQE 4–6 points PUQE 7–12 points PUQE ≥ 13 points
  n = 1203    n = 136 n = 361 n = 629 n = 77
  n (%) pa pb n (%) OR n (%) OR 95% CI AORa 95% CI n (%) OR 95% CI AORa 95% CI n (%) OR 95% CI AORa 95% CI
Difficulty falling asleep   0.005 0.026   1   1.05 0.37–2.98 1.00 0.30–3.18   2.66 1.04–6.75 2.46 0.86–7.07   3.01 0.95–9.57 3.00 0.80–11.29
 Yes (≥ 3 times a week) 85 (7.1)    5 (0.4)   14 (1.1c)      58 (4.8)      8 (0.7)     
 No (≤ 1–2 times a week) 1113 (92.9)    130 (10.9)   346 (28.9)      568 (47.4)      69 (5.8)     
Night awakenings   < 0.0001 < 0.0001   1   1.34 0.90–2.01 1.33 0.86–2.05   2.39 1.62–3.52 2.08 1.38–3.15   3.87 1.95–7.70 3.90 1.79–8.47
 Yes (≥ 3 times a week) 837 (69.9)    75 (6.3)   227 (19.0)      471 (39.4)      64 (5.4)     
 No (≤ 1–2 times a week) 360 (30.1)    59 (4.9)   133 (11.1)      155 (12.9b)      13 (1.0b)     
Too early morning awakenings   0.0008 0.013   1   2.02 0.82–4.95 1.81 0.72–4.53   3.82 1.64–8.91 3.16 1.33–7.49   3.97 1.42–11.04 3.05 0.99–9.37
 Yes (≥ 3 times a week) 143 (12.0)    6 (0.5)   31 (2.6)      94 (7.9)      12 (1.00)     
 No (≤ 1–2 times a week) 1053 (88.0)    129 (10.8)   330 (27.6)      529 (44.2)      65 (5.4)     
Sleepiness during the day   < 0.0001 < 0.0001   1   2.87 1.67–4.95 2.90 1.60–5.28   4.93 2.93–8.29 5.07 2.86–8.97   4.15 2.11–8.15 4.67 2.20–9.94
 Yes (≥ 3 times a week) 427 (35.7)    18 (1.5)   110 (9.2)      269 (22.5)      30 (2.5)     
 No (≤ 1–2 times a week) 768 (64.3)    117 (9.8)   249 (20.9b)      355 (29.7)      47 (3.9)     
  Mean ± SD    Mean ± SD   Mean ± SD      Mean ± SD      Mean ± SD     
General sleep quality VAS 53.5 ± 30.5 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 3.6 ± 9.1 1 40.7 ± 25.0 1.05 1.03–1.06 1.05 1.03–1.07 67.3 ± 21.7 1.07 1.05–1.09 1.07 1.06–1.09 81.6 ± 18.5 1.08 1.06–1.10 1.09 1.07–1.11
Physical QoL VAS 33.7 ± 28.4 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 3.6 ± 10.4 1 23.7 ± 21.7 1.17 1.13–1.20 1.20 1.16–1.25 43.0 ± 27.2 1.22 1.18–1.26 1.25 1.20–1.31 55.4 ± 30.2 1.28 1.23–1.32 1.32 1.26–1.39
Mental QoL VAS 31.4 ± 25.6 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 10.9 ± 17.5 1 25.0 ± 23.2 1.12 1.09–1.15 1.14 1.10–1.17 37.5 ± 25.0 1.15 1.12–1.19 1.17 1.13–1.21 45.5 ± 26.1 1.17 1.14–1.21 1.19 1.15–1.23
  1. Odds ratios presented with 95% confidence interval
  2. AOR Adjusted odds ratio, BMI Body mass index, NVP Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, PUQE Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis questionnaire, Sleep disturbances were assessed with Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, QoL Quality of life, VAS Visual analog scale
  3. aUnivariate analysis (multinomial logistic regression analysis)
  4. bAdjusted for age, parity, BMI, smoking and employment (multinomial logistic regression analysis)
  5. cResults rounded up with one decimal