From: Male partner involvement in birth preparedness, complication readiness and obstetric emergencies in Sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review
Interventional studies n = 1983 and 12 FGD
Country & Study design
Inclusion criteria and sample (n)
Intervention details & duration
Sampling and recruitment strategy
Data source & analysis
Ibrahim et al. (2014) 
Nigeria: Quasi-experimental study
To assess the effect of a health promotion intervention on MP involvement in BPCR
Married men whose wives had been pregnant in preceding 3 years
(205 pre and 206 post)
Behavioural intervention Five interactive workshops. A film shown and discussion. Almanacs with messages of MP involvement and reproductive health
Multistage random sampling of intervention and control group
Standardised survey and qualitative interviews with all participants.
-Pre-post surveys analysed. Qualitative data thematically analysed.
No increase or change in BPCR following intervention. Qualitative analysis revealed religious beliefs prohibited BPCR
Mushi, Mpembeni & Jahn (2010) 
Tanzania: Quasi experimental
To develop, test and assess safe motherhood intervention
Pregnant women and their partners
Age 19–53, median 29. 62% married, most married by 18 years old, 41% never been to school. 94% Muslim
(242:153 women, 69 partners
Safe Motherhood Intervention
Home visits with pregnant women and husband and key community members about danger signs, complications, BPCR, ANC, and birth with a skilled attendant
Random sample of residents in four villages pre and post intervention
Questionnaire: demographic, attendance ANC, risk factors, referral status, place of birth. Qualitative: iSSI with closed and open-ended questions. Referral information.
-Outcomes compared pre and post.
-No significant differences in MP knowledge of danger signs between pre and post intervention
-MP awareness of: 3 risk practices during pregnancy pre 58 (58%) vs post 39 (55%); 3 danger signs during pregnancy pre 54 (54%) vs 42 (60.9%); 3 complications during delivery pre 41 (41%) vs post 36 (52.2%); 3 practices that contribute to delay in seeking care pre 52 (52%) vs post 40 (58%); MP who did not believe pregnancy complications are due to non-observance of tradition pre 36 (36%) vs 40 (58%).
August, Pembe, Mpembeni, Axemo & Darj (2016) 
Tanzania: Quantitative pre/post quasi experimental
To evaluate the Home Based Life Saving Skills in terms of male knowledge of danger signs, joint decision making, birth preparedness and attending ANC
Men with partners who gave birth in last 2 years
Home Based Life Saving Skills
-Joint training of pregnant women and family
Aim to educate about BPCR, danger signs, promote health seeking behaviour and provide skills to handle emergencies
Teaching through checklists, skill acquisition and Take Action cards
Four home visits
Two-stage cluster sampling, random sampling of villages with all eligible men approached.
-intervention and comparison group
Standardised JHPIEGO questionnaire
Descriptive statistics, net intervention effect difference between baseline and endline in intervention minus effect in comparison group
Outcomes reported as Net Intervention Effect (NIE): Effect of the intervention on male involvement:
−3+ danger signs during pregnancy, 3+ during childbirth, and 3+ during postpartum NIE = 27% (CI: 15.3–38.5; p < 0.001).
-MP who made three or more BP/CR actions increased significantly, NIE = 26.8%, CI: 15.3–38.2; p < 0.001).
Ekirapa-Kiracho et al. (2016) 
Uganda: Evaluation study FGD, IDI
To reflect on gains, challenges and lessons learnt from working with communities to improve maternal and newborn health in rural Uganda
Women who recently gave birth and their partners
(20 IDIs & 12 FGDs)
Participatory Action Research MANIFEST (maternal and neonatal implementation for equitable systems)
Aim to increase maternal and newborn health through community awareness
Intervention: diagnose problem, plan action, take action, learn from action
Topic guide not described
-No quantitative analysis of MP BPCR changes
-Men and women anecdotally reported increased awareness about BPCR
-Alternative communication strategies are needed to reach men outside the minority who were involved in home visits and community meetings
-Some changes were observed among men following intervention, e.g. increased support via nutritious diets, purchasing birth items, and saving for childbirth said women during FGDs.