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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs), adjusted odds ratios (AORs), and 95% confidence intervals for illicit drug use in pregnancy by ACE category (N = 1660)a

From: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with illicit drug use among pregnant women with middle to high socioeconomic status: findings from the All Our Families Cohort

Models OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Model 1: Maternal ACE score < 18 years
 0–1 ACEs 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 2–3 ACEs 3.8 (1.9, 7.5) 3.0 (1.5, 6.1)
 ≥ 4 ACEs 5.7 (2.7, 11.6) 3.7 (1.7, 8.0)
Model 2: Maternal ACE child abuse score < 18 years
 No abuse in childhood 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 1 form of child abuse 2.6 (1.3, 5.3) 2.3 (1.1, 4.7)
 2–3 forms of child abuse 4.0 (2.0, 8.0) 2.8 (1.3, 5.7)
Model 3: Maternal ACE household dysfunction score < 18 years
 No household dysfunction 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 1 form of household dysfunction 2.1 (1.0, 4.4) 1.5 (0.7, 3.2)
 2–6 forms of household dysfunction 3.3 (1.7, 6.4) 2.2 (1.1, 4.4)
  1. a Variables significant using a 95% CI are presented in bold. Models were adjusted for maternal age, education, income, marital status, and whether the pregnancy was intended