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Table 2 Exposure variables for inadequate or excess weight gain in a prospective cohort study

From: Gestational weight gain outside the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations: novel psychological and behavioural factors associated with inadequate or excess weight gain in a prospective cohort study

Selected variables/ exposure overall p-value Selected variables/exposure Reference Outcome aOR (95% CI) p-value for each category
Parity 0.005      
   Nulliparous Multiparous Inadequate GWG 0.68 (0.44 to 1.06) 0.088
     Excess GWG 1.33 (0.97 to 1.85) 0.081
Prepregnancy BMI < 0.001      
   Underweight Normal weight Inadequate GWG 0.85 (0.30 to 2.42) 0.760
     Excess GWG 0.35 (0.14 to 0.89) 0.027
   Overweight Normal weight Inadequate GWG 0.47 (0.22 to 1.03) 0.058
     Excess GWG 2.39 (1.56 to 3.67) < 0.001
   Obese Normal weight Inadequate GWG 2.35 (1.16 to 4.77) 0.017
     Excess GWG 1.71 (1.01 to 2.90) 0.047
Planned gestational weight gain < 0.001      
   Not reported Within guidelines Inadequate GWG 3.15 (1.36 to 7.27) 0.007
     Excess GWG 1.57 (0.79 to 3.12) 0.202
   Below guidelines Within guidelines Inadequate GWG 2.16 (1.31 to 3.55) 0.003
     Excess GWG 1.00 (0.68 to 1.48) > 0.999
   Above guidelines Within guidelines Inadequate GWG 0.70 (0.35 to 1.40) 0.312
     Excess GWG 2.19 (1.42 to 3.38) < 0.001
Preferred body size image before pregnancy 0.013      
   Underweight Normal weight Inadequate GWG 1.58 (0.94 to 2.65) 0.083
     Excess GWG 0.91 (0.60 to 1.39) 0.654
   Overweight/obese Normal weight Inadequate GWG 0.26 (0.10 to 0.70) 0.007
     Excess GWG 0.56 (0.29 to 1.08) 0.086
Anxiety 0.001      
   Yes No Inadequate GWG 3.65 (1.84 to 7.28) < 0.001
     Excess GWG 1.57 (0.87 to 2.84) 0.132
Food cravings related to pregnancy 0.014      
   ≥ 1 time/day Never or 1 time/week Inadequate GWG 0.53 (0.33 to 0.83) 0.006
     Excess GWG 0.95 (0.69 to 1.32) 0.776
Smoking 0.027      
   Before pregnancy Non-smoker Inadequate GWG 0.57 (0.27 to 1.20) 0.136
     Excess GWG 1.61 (0.98 to 2.65) 0.059
   During pregnancy Non-smoker Inadequate GWG 1.34 (0.57 to 3.18) 0.502
     Excess GWG 1.33 (0.66 to 2.68) 0.420
Frequency of eating in front of a screen 0.001      
   Some meals None or almost no meals Inadequate GWG 1.03 (0.64 to 1.66) 0.898
     Excess GWG 1.93 (1.36 to 2.74) < 0.001
   Most meals or all None or almost no meals Inadequate GWG 1.54 (0.83 to 2.85) 0.176
     Excess GWG 1.85 (1.13 to 3.02) 0.014
I eat sensibly when with others, but overeat when I’m alone 0.024      
   Yes No Inadequate GWG 1.62 (1.05 to 2.51) 0.030
     Excess GWG 1.51 (1.09 to 2.09) 0.013
Agreeableness 0.002      
   Continuous variable Inadequate GWG 0.82 (0.66 to 1.01) 0.063
     Excess GWG 1.18 (1.00 to 1.39) 0.049
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, GWG gestational weight gain, aOR adjusted odds ratio