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Table 2 Association of adverse neonatal outcomes with low and high birthweights after GROW, INTERGROWTH and WHO criteria. Relative risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals are reported in comparison to all other pregnancies. Neonatal hypoglycaemia included only infants who required IV dextrose. GROW: gestation related optimum weight; NICU: neonatal intensive care unit; WHO: world health organisation. Composite outcome: birth injury, neonatal hypoglycaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, respiratory distress syndrome, or neonatal intensive care admission. * p< 0.05; **p< 0.01; ***p< 0.001

From: Which growth standards should be used to identify large- and small-for-gestational age infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes? A pre-specified analysis of the CONCEPTT trial

  N (%) Neonatal hypoglycaemia
RR (95% CI)
NICU Admission
RR (95% CI)
Hyper-bilirubinaemia
RR (95% CI)
Respiratory Distress
RR (95% CI)
Composite Outcome
RR (95% CI)
Birthweight > 84.1st centile (mean + 1 sd)
 GROW > 84.1st centile 146/225 (64.9%) 1.66 (0.97 to 2.84) 1.41 (0.95 to 2.10) 1.56 (0.94 to 2.56) 2.03 (0.70 to 5.91) 1.46 (1.05 to 2.02)*
 INTERGROWTH > 84.1st centile 167/225 (74.2%) 1.45 (0.81 to 2.61) 1.17 (0.77 to 1.77) 1.19 (0.71 to 1.99) 1.30 (0.45 to 3.77) 1.20 (0.85 to 1.69)
 WHO > 84.1st centile 82/225 (36.4%) 1.36 (0.87 to 2.13) 0.99 (0.69 to 1.41) 0.77 (0.48 to 1.23) 0.80 (0.32 to 2.04) 1.00 (0.75 to 1.33)
Birthweight >90th centile (mean + 1.28 sd)
 GROW >90th centile 140/225 (62.2%) 1.86 (1.09 to 3.20)* 1.49 (1.01 to 2.21)* 1.61 (0.99 to 2.62) 2.28 (0.78 to 6.63) 1.56 (1.13 to 2.16)**
 INTERGROWTH >90th centile 150/225 (66.7%) 1.69 (0.97 to 2.94) 1.48 (0.98 to 2.22) 1.44 (0.87 to 2.36) 1.88 (0.64 to 5.45) 1.41 (1.01 to 1.96)*
 WHO >90th centile 67/225 (29.8%) 1.48 (0.94 to 2.33) 1.02 (0.70 to 1.47) 0.82 (0.50 to 1.34) 0.63 (0.22 to 1.82) 1.05 (0.78 to 1.41)
Birthweight > 97.7th centile (mean + 2 sd)
 GROW > 97.7th centile 95/225 (42.2%) 2.35 (1.47 to 3.75)*** 1.62 (1.15 to 2.28)** 1.56 (1.02 to 2.38)* 1.88 (0.79 to 4.50) 1.50 (1.14 to 1.97)**
 INTERGROWTH > 97.7th centile 92/225 (40.9%) 2.30 (1.45 to 3.65)*** 1.48 (1.06 to 2.08)* 1.19 (0.78 to 1.82) 1.61 (0.68 to 3.80) 1.42 (1.08 to 1.86)*
 WHO > 97.7th centile 28/225 (12.4%) 2.29 (1.45 to 3.61)*** 1.55 (1.05 to 2.30)* 0.90 (0.45 to 1.77) 1.32 (0.41 to 4.24) 1.33 (0.95 to 1.86)
Birthweight <10th centile (<1.28 sd below mean)
 GROW <10th centile 5/225 (2.2%) 0.79 (0.13 to 4.60) 1.65 (0.79 to 3.45) 2.24 (1.06 to 4.73)* 2.44 (0.40 to 14.91) 1.27 (0.61 to 2.63)
 INTERGROWTH <10th centile 3/225 (1.3%) Insufficient events 1.83 (0.81 to 4.14) 2.47 (1.08 to 5.65)* 4.11 (0.78 to 21.63) 1.41 (0.63 to 3.18)
 WHO <10th centile 20/225 (8.9%) 1.21 (0.59 to 2.45) 1.90 (1.31 to 2.77)*** 1.74 (1.02 to 2.98)* 3.66 (1.47 to 9.11)** 1.67 (1.24 to 2.24)***
Birthweight <25th centile (< 0.675 sd below mean)
 GROW <25th centile 13/225 (5.8%) 0.59 (0.16 to 2.17) 1.05 (0.51 to 2.13) 1.43 (0.69 to 2.95) 1.92 (0.50 to 7.43) 0.80 (0.40 to 1.61)
 INTERGROWTH <25th centile 7/225 (3.1%) 0.56 (0.09 to 3.46) 1.58 (0.81 to 3.07) 2.15 (1.09 to 4.23)* 3.66 (1.04 to 12.88)* 1.21 (0.63 to 2.33)
 WHO <25th centile 37/225 (16.4%) 1.22 (0.70 to 2.12) 1.83 (1.31 to 2.57)*** 1.77 (1.13 to 2.76)* 2.96 (1.25 to 7.02)* 1.22 (0.70 to 2.12)