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Table 1 Maternal Infant Characteristics. BMI: body mass index; GROW: gestation related optimum weight; NICU: neonatal intensive care unit; WHO: World Health Organisation. Composite outcome: birth injury, neonatal hypoglycaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, respiratory distress syndrome, or neonatal intensive care admission. Diabetes complications defined as any retinopathy, neuropathy or nephropathy

From: Which growth standards should be used to identify large- and small-for-gestational age infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes? A pre-specified analysis of the CONCEPTT trial

  Mean (SD) or n (%)
n=225
MATERNAL CHARACTERISTICS
 Maternal age, years 31.4 (4.5)
 BMI at enrolment, kg/m2 25.8 (4.6)
 Ethnicity European/ Mediterranean origin 194 (86.2)
 Primiparous 89 (39.6)
 Duration of diabetes, years 16.5 (7.7)
 Diabetes complications 58 (25.8)
 Hypertension pre-pregnancy 15 (6.7)
 HbA1c at randomisation mmol/mol 51.8 (6.6)
 HbA1c at randomisation % 6.9 (0.6)
 Smoking 20 (8.9)
 Insulin pump 110 (48.9)
INFANT CHARACTERISTICS
 Sex (% male) 115 (51.1)
 Gestational age at delivery 37.0 (1.6)
BIRTHWEIGHT MEASURES
 Birthweight g 3583.6 (705)
 Macrosomia >=4 kg 59 (26.2) Median (range)
 GROW centile 82.1 (25.9) 95.2 (0.1–100.0)
 INTERGROWTH centile 85.7 (20.8) 95.0 (3.9–100.0)
 WHO centile 63.9 (32.0) 73.6 (0.0–100.0)
OBSTETRIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES
 Caesarean section 155 (68.9)
 Preterm delivery 89 (39.6)
 Neonatal hypoglycaemia requiring intravenous dextrose 57 (25.3)
 NICU admission 83 (36.9)
 Hyperbilirubinaemia 62 (27.6)
 Respiratory distress 19 (8.4)
 Composite neonatal outcome 107 (47.6)