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Table 3 Women’s well-being by their socio-demographic characteristics (N = 484)

From: Pregnant women’s well-being and worry during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

   Levels of well-being  
   WHO-5 index < 50 WHO-5 index ≥50  
Socio-demographic variables N (%) 118 (24.4) 366 (75.6) P
 Age (year)     0.847a
  < 20 28 (5.8) 8 (28.6) 20 (71.4)  
  20–30 286 (59.1) 68 (23.8) 218 (76.2)  
  > 30 170 (35.1) 42 (24.7) 128 (75.3)  
 Job     0.441a
  Housewife 373 (77.1) 94 (25.2) 279 (74.8)  
  Employed 111 (22.9) 24 (21.6) 87 (78.4)  
 Education     0.060a
  Primary School 26 (5.4) 4 (15.4) 22 (84.6)  
  Diploma 183 (37.8) 55 (30.1) 128 (69.9)  
  University 275 (41.1) 59 (21.5) 216 (78.5)  
 Family income     0.232ac
  Low 71 (14.7) 23 (32.4) 48 (77.6)  
  Middle 401 (82.9) 92 (22.9) 309 (77.1)  
  High 12 (2.5) 3 (257) 9 (75)  
 Husband’s age     0.313a
   < 30 135 (27.9) 28 (20.7) 107 (79.3)  
  30–40 291(60.1) 78 (26.8) 213 (73.2)  
   > 40 58 (12) 12 (20.7) 46 (79.3)  
 Husband’s education level     0.217a
  Primary School 56 (11.6) 13 (23.2) 43 (76.8)  
  Diploma 201 (41.5) 57 (28.4) 144 (71.6)  
  University 227 (31.8) 48 (21.1) 179 (78.9)  
 Husband’s job     0.167a
  Worker 117 (24.2) 35 (29.9) 82 (70.1)  
  Clerk 128 (26.4) 25 (19.5) 103 (80.5)  
  Self-employed 239 (49.4) 58 (24.3) 181 (75.7)  
 Close family member with chronic disease     0.300a
  Yes 85 (17.6) 17 (20.0) 68 (80.0)  
  No 399 (82.4) 101 (25.3) 298 (74.7)  
 COVID-19 infected person among relatives     0.008†ab
  Yes 38 (7.9) 16 (42.1) 22 (57.9)  
  No 446 (92.1) 102 (22.9) 344 (77.1)  
 Death due to COVID-19 among relatives     0.032‡ab
  Yes 20 (4.1) 9 (45.0) 11 (55.0)  
  No 464 (95.9) 109 (23.5) 355 (76.5)  
 Fear of COVID-19     0.016ab
  Not at all to moderate 272 (70.8) 55 (20.2) 217 (79.8)  
  High to Severe 212 (29.2) 63 (29.7) 149 (70.3)  
 Participation in the study     0.377a
  After the first wave of COVID-19 384 (79.3) 97 (25.3) 287 (74.7)  
  During the second wave of COVID-19 100 (20.7) 21 (21.0) 79 (79.0)  
Obstetrics variables
 Gestational age (week)     0.513a
  First trimester 75 (15.5) 21 (28.0) 54 (72.0)  
  Second trimester 187 (38.6) 48 (25.7) 139 (74.3)  
  Third trimester 222 (45.9) 49 (22.1) 173 (77.9)  
 Parity     0.992a
  Nullipara 234 (48.3) 57 (24.4) 177 (75.6)  
  Primipara/Multipara 250 (52.7) 61 (24.4) 189 (75.6)  
 Having a history of abortion     0.823a
  Yes 131 (27.1) 31 (23.7) 100 (76.3)  
  No 353 (72.9) 87 (24.6) 266 (75.4)  
 Having a pregnancy complication     0.920a
  Yes 44 (9.1) 11 (25) 33 (75)  
  No 440 (90.9) 107 (24.3) 333 (75.7)  
 Having a poor obstetric history     0.341a
  Yes 54 (11.2) 16 (29.6) 38 (70.4)  
  No 430 (88.8) 102 (23.7) 328 (76.3)  
  1. aPearson chi-square, ‡Fisher exact test, blogistic regression: p < 0.05, clogistic regression: p < 0.25
  2. †selected for multivariate logistic regression analysis