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Table 1 Racial health disparities. The percent increase in risk and 95% credibility intervals for racial health disparities defined as deviations from the population expected rates

From: Estimating racial health disparities among adverse birth outcomes as deviations from the population rates

 WhiteBlackAIAN1AsianNHOPI2Hispanic
Number of singleton births (n)5,680,4891,513,61687,318690,93625,2792,568,435
Maternal conditions
 Gestational Diabetes− 23.7 (−24.3, −23.1)−30.5 (−31.1, − 29.8)30.3 (27.8, 32.9) a62.0 (60.5, 63.5) a23.7 (19.4, 28.1) a−6.0 (−6.7, −5.2)
 Gestational hypertension10.1 (9.1, 11.1)a28.3 (27.0, 29.5) a34.9 (32.0, 37.8) a− 40.4 (− 41.2, − 39.6)6.2 (1.7, 10.9) a−14.6 (− 15.4, − 13.7)
 Hypertension eclampsia−21.7 (− 24.5, − 18.9)32.3 (27.3, 37.5) a38.1 (25.5, 51.9) a−42.6 (− 46.0, − 39.2)175.4 (142.7, 211) a−37.2 (− 39.6, − 34.5)
Severe maternal morbidities
 Induction of labor25.6 (25.1, 26.1) a6.0 (5.5, 6.5) a15.0 (13.8, 16.2) a−12.7 (− 13.2, − 12.2)− 18.5 (− 20.3, − 16.7)−8.7 (− 9.1, − 8.3)
 Caesarian section−2.4 (− 2.7, − 2.1)14.1 (13.7, 14.5) a−10.1 (− 11.0, − 9.2)5.8 (5.4, 6.3) a0.0 (− 1.6, 1.7)1.7 (1.3, 2.0) a
 Maternal transfusion−20.1 (− 22.7, − 17.3)3.1 (− 0.7, 7.2)115.1 (100.0, 131.2) a− 27.2 (− 30.9, − 23.4)26.7 (7.3, 48.4) a−18.2 (− 21.2, − 15.1)
 Perineal Laceration18.2 (15.3, 21.2) a−47.5 (− 49.2, − 45.9)− 17.8 (− 24.0, − 11.2)116.2 (110.1, 122.5)10.0 (−2.8, 23.7)− 25.5 (− 27.5, − 23.5)
 Ruptured uterus−15.3 (− 24.7, − 3.8)11.7 (−2.4, 28.1)42.9 (5.2, 90.4) a−10.3 (− 24.2, 6.0)−1.6 (− 51.1, 70.8)−17.9 (− 27.7, − 5.8)
 Unplanned hysterectomy−30.0 (− 35.9, − 23.1)−14.0 (− 22.5, − 4.2)64.3 (31.6, 103.5) a−6.3 (− 17.2, 6.6)27.8 (− 19.7, 92.4)−14.6 (− 22.2, − 5.7)
 Admission to ICU−34.8 (− 37.9, − 31.5)19.4 (13.1, 25.9) a7.1 (−7.1, 23.4)− 8.2 (− 14.2, − 1.7)98.3 (62.5, 137.5) a−24.7 (− 28.5, − 20.6)
Birth defects
 Anencephaly56.5 (19.8, 136.1) a5.7 (−23.1, 64.9)70.8 (−13.6, 212.6)− 25.5 (− 50.8, 20.3)− 53.2 (− 96.9, 89.9)55.1 (16.7, 134.2) a
 Meningomyelocele/spina bifida47.5 (21.3, 91.5) a−12.3 (− 31.3, 17.7)118.8 (39.9, 236.1) a− 59.1 (− 72.1, − 40.2)−34.2 (− 87.3, 83.9)12.1 (− 10.2, 47.3)
 Cyanotic congenital heart disease6.5 (0.0, 14.9) a−21.7 (− 28.6, − 13.8)45.3 (17.5, 77.6) a−46.4 (− 53.1, − 39.1)72.4 (20.5, 136.5) a−32.6 (− 38.2, − 26.5)
 Diaphragmatic hernia31.2 (9.6, 61.6) a− 13.2 (− 30.8, 10.8)36.4 (− 21.3, 120.9)−33.9 (− 51.7, − 10.9)38.4 (− 52.0, 199.6)− 14.1 (− 30.2, 7.7)
 Omphalocele28.7 (3.4, 69.2) a23.8 (− 3.2, 65.2)67.5 (− 5.3, 176.7)− 39.4 (− 57.6, − 11.4)− 21.5 (− 84.8, 121.5)−21.2 (− 38.4, 5.4)
 Gastroschisis20.5 (5.0, 41.1) a−21.4 (− 33.4, − 5.2)211.6 (141.0, 302.3) a− 73.2 (− 80.4, − 64.3)−18.7 (− 68.0, 60.2)14.5 (− 1.3, 35.8)
 Limb reduction defect19.9 (0.5, 48.2) a1.5 (− 17.5, 27.7)152.3 (73.6, 262.2) a−41.5 (− 56.5, − 20.6)13.5 (− 61.0, 140.5)− 15.6 (− 31.0, 5.3)
 Cleft lip (with or without cleft palate)17.1 (6.8, 29.2) a−37.0 (− 43.9, − 28.9)117.8 (79.1, 164.8) a− 22.6 (− 32.7, − 11.0)−9.4 (− 48.0, 42.7)−0.4 (− 9.9, 10.8)
 Cleft palate alone26.4 (10.6, 47.9) a−32.8 (− 43.4, − 19.2)115.0 (58.7, 187.5) a−21.7 (− 36.1, − 3.2)− 17.4 (− 67.5, 65.9)− 29.8 (− 39.9, − 16.6)
 Hypospadias81.2 (63.2, 104.9) a10.3 (−2.5, 26.1)−13.2 (− 37.6, 17.8)− 6.6 (− 19.5, 8.9)−28.8 (− 64.2, 24.4)− 25.3 (− 33.7, − 14.5)
 Down syndrome17.0 (6.3, 30.5) a−18.6 (− 27.6, − 8.0)43.4 (11.9, 80.2) a− 36.5 (− 45.6, − 25.9)−29.0 (− 62.7, 19.2)22.5 (10.7, 37.0) a
 Chromosomal disorder8.9 (0.0, 20.9) a−13.2 (− 23.1, − 1.6)54.3 (18.7, 97.6) a− 26.9 (− 37.5, − 14.4)41.7 (− 14.3, 117.7)−0.4 (− 10.6, 11.5)
Neonatal conditions
 Low Apgar−21.2 (− 23.4, − 18.9)78.3 (73.2, 83.8) a23.1 (14.1, 32.5) a− 42.2 (− 44.7, − 39.6)12.9 (−2.2, 29.3)− 26.3 (− 28.5, − 23.9)
 Small for Gestational age− 22.4 (− 22.9, − 21.9)51.0 (50.0, 52.0) a− 24.3 (− 25.8, − 22.7)32.6 (31.6, 33.7) a− 10.4 (− 13.2, − 7.4)−9.1 (− 9.7, − 8.5)
 Large for Gestational age24.9 (24.2, 25.7) a−36.0 (− 36.5, − 35.5)50.9 (48.7, 53.2) a− 41.8 (− 42.4, − 41.2)39.5 (35.7, 43.3) a− 1.1 (− 1.7, − 0.5)
 Very pre-term delivery−31.9 (− 33.2, − 30.5)94.6 (90.8, 98.5) a1.3 (− 4.0, 7.0)− 30.5 (− 32.4, − 28.6)5.2 (− 4.6, 15.4)−10.3 (− 12.1, − 8.4)
 Pre-term delivery− 18.0 (− 18.6, − 17.4)34.4 (33.3, 35.4) a13.9 (11.8, 16.0) a−18.0 (− 18.9, − 17.2)11.8 (8.1, 15.6) a− 6.1 (− 6.8, − 5.4)
 Seizures22.9 (9.1, 40.7) a12.2 (− 1.7, 30.5)59.6 (19.3, 109.2) a− 27.0 (− 38.8, − 12.0)− 28.9 (− 68.7, 31.7)−34.3 (− 42.5, − 23.9)
Neonatal treatments
 Antibiotics−6.8 (− 8.2, − 5.4)15.0 (13.2, 16.9) a24.7 (20.2, 29.3) a− 6.8 (− 8.6, − 4.9)− 6.2 (− 13.1, 1.3)−13.1 (− 14.5, − 11.7)
 Surfactant6.3 (2.6, 10.4) a53.6 (47.8, 59.8) a15.4 (4.6, 26.7) a−43.2 (− 46.4, − 39.9)2.8 (− 15.1, 22.0)− 18.2 (− 21.4, − 14.8)
 Begin ventilation5.1 (4.0, 6.2) a15.4 (14.1, 16.7) a26.3 (22.8, 29.8) a− 32.2 (− 33.2, − 31.1)38.3 (31.9, 44.9) a−27.8 (− 28.7, − 27.0)
 Prolonged ventilation (> 6 h)0.4 (− 1.4, 2.3)25.0 (22.5, 27.6) a24.7 (18.7, 30.9) a−36.5 (− 38.3, − 34.6)31.9 (20.7, 43.7) a−27.0 (− 28.4, − 25.4)
 Admission to NICU−13.1 (− 13.7, − 12.5)26.8 (25.8, 27.8) a0.9 (− 1.1, 3.1)− 10.0 (− 10.9, − 9.1)5.0 (1.2, 8.8) a− 7.6 (− 8.3, − 6.9)
Neonatal mortality−38.2 (− 40.1, − 36.2)9.1 (5.4, 12.9) a−2.1 (− 10.9, 7.4)− 25.6 (− 29.0, − 22.2)41.5 (22.8, 62.9) a− 8.8 (− 11.8, − 5.8)
  1. a Statistically significant disparity (p < 0.05)