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Table 2 Bivariate Association between Explanatory Variables and Risk of Labour Induction among Nulliparous and Multiparous Women

From: Socioeconomic risk factors for labour induction in the United Kingdom

  

Nulliparous

Multiparous

%

P Value

%

P Value

Maternal Age

19 years and under

36.3

0.437

27.2

0.348

20–25 years old

36.1

 

27.3

 

26–30 years old

35.4

 

27.7

 

31–35 years old

37.8

 

26.5

 

36 years and older

38.4

 

27.6

 

Maternal Ethnicity

White

36.8

0.090

28.2

0.053

Indian

34.2

 

25.8

 

Pakistani/Bangladeshi

35.4

 

23.3

 

Black/Black British

33.5

 

21.2

 

Other

31.0

 

20.7

 

Maternal Marital Status

Legally Married

36.0

0.031

26.5

0.047

Cohabiting

36.0

 

28.9

 

Single/Divorced

38.0

 

28.2

 

Maternal Education

Higher/first degrees

34.0

0.337

20.8

0.000

Diplomas in higher ed

36.0

 

28.1

 

A/O Levels (GSCE A-C)

37.5

 

28.1

 

Other (incl. GCSE D-G)

35.7

 

26.7

 

None

37.1

 

29.4

 

Maternal Occupation

Managerial/professional

35.5

0.054

25.0

0.020

Intermediate

35.7

 

26.8

 

Self-employed

38.6

 

26.3

 

Lower supervisor

42.6

 

25.5

 

Semi-routine/Routine

37.3

 

28.9

 

None

33.9

 

27.6

 

Income Quintile

Lowest Quintile

36.4

0.534

28.9

0.000

Second Quintile

38.1

 

28.0

 

Third Quintile

36.7

 

27.7

 

Fourth Quintile

35.8

 

25.0

 

Highest Quintile

35.3

 

23.9

 

Housing Tenure

Own outright/mortgage

35.9

0.341

26.2

0.001

Rent from LA/HA

36.4

 

29.1

 

Rent privately

36.6

 

27.0

 

Other (incl. with parents)

38.6

 

28.9

 

Electoral Ward Deprivation

England – Advantaged

34.0

0.001

23.8

0.000

England – Disadvantaged

35.8

 

26.4

 

England – Ethnic

34.3

 

22.7

 

Wales – Advantaged

33.5

 

24.9

 

Wales – Disadvantaged

35.6

 

28.8

 

Scotland – Advantaged

38.9

 

29.1

 

Scotland – Disadvantaged

41.1

 

32.0

 

Northern Ireland – Adv

50.5

 

37.7

 

Northern Ireland – Disadv

39.6

 

39.1

 

Smoking Behaviour

Did Not Smoke

36.5

0.569

29.6

0.253

Smoked During Pregnancy

36.4

 

26.8

 

Pregnancy Complications

No preg complications

32.6

0.000

24.7

0.000

Complications not associated with induction

36.5

 

30.1

 

Complications associated with induction

50.3

 

34.4

 

Other

40.5

 

29.1

 

Maternal BMI

Low (<18.5)

33.7

0.000

26.1

0.000

Normal (18.5–24.9)

34.1

 

26.1

 

High (≥25.0)

43.6

 

30.2

 

Infant Birth Weight

Low (<2500 g)

32.1

0.000

29.6

0.000

Normal (2500-4000 g)

35.4

 

25.8

 

High (>4000 g)

50.3

 

36.0

 

Infant Gestational Age

259 days or less

30.4

0.000

25.2

0.000

260–272 days

31.2

 

25.4

 

273–286 days

27.8

 

21.1

 

287–293 days

53.1

 

42.4

 

294 days or more

72.4

 

54.9