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Table 2 Bivariate Association between Explanatory Variables and Risk of Labour Induction among Nulliparous and Multiparous Women

From: Socioeconomic risk factors for labour induction in the United Kingdom

  NulliparousMultiparous
%P Value%P Value
Maternal Age19 years and under36.30.43727.20.348
20–25 years old36.1 27.3 
26–30 years old35.4 27.7 
31–35 years old37.8 26.5 
36 years and older38.4 27.6 
Maternal EthnicityWhite36.80.09028.20.053
Indian34.2 25.8 
Pakistani/Bangladeshi35.4 23.3 
Black/Black British33.5 21.2 
Other31.0 20.7 
Maternal Marital StatusLegally Married36.00.03126.50.047
Cohabiting36.0 28.9 
Single/Divorced38.0 28.2 
Maternal EducationHigher/first degrees34.00.33720.80.000
Diplomas in higher ed36.0 28.1 
A/O Levels (GSCE A-C)37.5 28.1 
Other (incl. GCSE D-G)35.7 26.7 
None37.1 29.4 
Maternal OccupationManagerial/professional35.50.05425.00.020
Intermediate35.7 26.8 
Self-employed38.6 26.3 
Lower supervisor42.6 25.5 
Semi-routine/Routine37.3 28.9 
None33.9 27.6 
Income QuintileLowest Quintile36.40.53428.90.000
Second Quintile38.1 28.0 
Third Quintile36.7 27.7 
Fourth Quintile35.8 25.0 
Highest Quintile35.3 23.9 
Housing TenureOwn outright/mortgage35.90.34126.20.001
Rent from LA/HA36.4 29.1 
Rent privately36.6 27.0 
Other (incl. with parents)38.6 28.9 
Electoral Ward DeprivationEngland – Advantaged34.00.00123.80.000
England – Disadvantaged35.8 26.4 
England – Ethnic34.3 22.7 
Wales – Advantaged33.5 24.9 
Wales – Disadvantaged35.6 28.8 
Scotland – Advantaged38.9 29.1 
Scotland – Disadvantaged41.1 32.0 
Northern Ireland – Adv50.5 37.7 
Northern Ireland – Disadv39.6 39.1 
Smoking BehaviourDid Not Smoke36.50.56929.60.253
Smoked During Pregnancy36.4 26.8 
Pregnancy ComplicationsNo preg complications32.60.00024.70.000
Complications not associated with induction36.5 30.1 
Complications associated with induction50.3 34.4 
Other40.5 29.1 
Maternal BMILow (<18.5)33.70.00026.10.000
Normal (18.5–24.9)34.1 26.1 
High (≥25.0)43.6 30.2 
Infant Birth WeightLow (<2500 g)32.10.00029.60.000
Normal (2500-4000 g)35.4 25.8 
High (>4000 g)50.3 36.0 
Infant Gestational Age259 days or less30.40.00025.20.000
260–272 days31.2 25.4 
273–286 days27.8 21.1 
287–293 days53.1 42.4 
294 days or more72.4 54.9