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Table 4 Levels of Evidence for the Measurement Properties of Indices of Prenatal Care Utilization

From: Systematic review of the measurement properties of indices of prenatal care utilization

IndexInternal ConsistencyReliabilityContent ValidityPredictive ValidityConcurrent ValidityResponsiveness
APNCUI?++?++++?
Kessner Index?++?++++?
GINDEX?+?+++?
R-GINDEX???+??
PHS/EPPC?+??++?
IPR/Prenatal Index?+?+++?
Carvalho & Novaes Index?+??+?
Ciari Index?+??+?
Cluster solution????+?
Coutinho Index?+??+?
Content and Timing of Care in Pregnancy???+??
Last Visit Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index???+??
  1. Strong = +++; Moderate = ++; Limited = +; Conflicting +/−; Unknown =?