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Table 3 Characteristics of Indices of Prenatal Care Utilization Evaluated for their Measurement Properties

From: Systematic review of the measurement properties of indices of prenatal care utilization

Index and StudiesAdequate Start of Prenatal careAdequate Number of Prenatal VisitsCategories of Prenatal CareBasis for StandardProperties Evaluated
APNCUI [10, 12, 14, 15, 19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27]1–4 mo11Intensive
Adequate
Intermediate
Inadequate
No care/missing
ACOG- Reliability
- Predictive validity
- Concurrent validity
Kessner Index [10, 12, 14, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27]1–3 mo9Adequate
Intermediate
Inadequate
No care/missing
ACOG- Reliability
- Predictive validity
- Concurrent validity
GINDEX [12, 14, 25]1–3 mo9Intensive
Adequate
Intermediate
Inadequate
No care/missing
ACOGa- Reliability
- Predictive validity
- Concurrent validity
R-GINDEX [12, 15]1–3 mo13Intensive
Adequate
Intermediate
Inadequate
No care
Missing
ACOG- Predictive validity
PHS/EPPC [12, 25]1–2 mo7 (multipara); 9 (primipara)Adequate
Intermediate
Inadequate
No care/missing data
PHS- Reliability
- Concurrent validity
IPR/Prenatal Index [24, 25]1–3 mo≥ 6Adequate
Intermediate
Inadequate
 - Reliability
- Predictive validity
- Concurrent validity
Carvalho & Novaes Index [25]1–3 mo≥ 7Adequate
Inadequate
NR- Reliability
- Concurrent validity
Ciari Index [25]1–3 mo11Good
Fair
Missing
NR- Reliability
- Concurrent validity
Cluster solution [23]NR≥ 12Six clusters of patterns of prenatal careNR- Concurrent validity
Coutinho Index [25]1–3.5 mo≥ 6Adequate
Intermediate
Inadequate
NR- Reliability
- Concurrent validity
Content and Timing of Care in Pregnancy [26]1–4 moMinimum 80% ratio between visits conducted and expected visitsAppropriate
Sufficient
Intermediate
Inadequate
NR- Predictive validity
LV-APNC [20]NR9Adequate Plus Adequate
Intermediate
Inadequate
NR- Predictive validity
  1. ACOG American College of Obstetrics & Gynecology, IPR Infrastructure, process, and results, LV-APNC Last Visit Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index, mo months
  2. aDoes not follow full ACOG prenatal care visit recommendation for term and post-term births