Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of the studies investigating measurement properties of indices of prenatal care utilization

From: Systematic review of the measurement properties of indices of prenatal care utilization

Author, YearCountryIndexDesignPopulation and Sample SizeData SourceOverall Quality
Alexander, 1996 [12]USA- Kessner
- APNCUI
- GINDEX
- R-GINDEX
-PHS/EPPC
Retrospective cohort studyPregnant women having a singleton live birth in South Carolina
N = 169,082
Administrative health database (1989–1991)Fair
Beeckman, 2013 [26]Belgium- APNCUI
- CTP
Prospective cohort studyPregnant women seen at medical centres in Brusssels Metropolitan Region
N = 333
Interview (2008)Good
da Silva, 2013 [24]Brazil- Kessner
- APNCUI
- IPR/Prenatal Index
Cross-sectional studyPregnant women seen at primary care services in the municipality of Joao Pessoa
N = 238
Survey (2010–2011)Fair
Delgado-Rodriguez, 1996 [27]Spain- Kessner
- APNCUI
Case-control studyPregnant women seen at a University hospital in Granada
N = 632
Chart review and interview (1990–1993)Fair
Dos Santos, 2013 [25]Brazil- Kessner
- APNCUI
- GINDEX
- PHS/EPPC
- IPR/Prenatal Index
- Carvalho & Novaes Index
- Ciari Index
- Coutinho Index
Retrospective cohort studyPregnant women admitted for delivery at public and outsourced maternity hospitals in Greater Metropolitan Vitória
N = 1006
Chart review and interview (2010)Fair
Heaman, 2008 [15]Canada- APNCUI
- R-GINDEX
Retrospective cohort studyPregnant women having a hospital-based singleton live birth in Winnipeg
N = 80,989
Administrative health database (1991–2000)Good
Koroukian, 2002 [19]USA- APNCUICross-sectional studyPregnant women having a singleton live birth in Ohio
N = 591,403
Administrative health database (1993–1996)Fair
Kotelchuck, 1994 [10]USA- Kessner
- APNCUI
Retrospective cohort studyWomen with prenatal care information on the birth certificate from the 1980 National Natality Survey
N = 9941
Survey (1980)Poor
Kurtzman, 2014 [20]USA- APNCUI
- LV-APNC Index
Retrospective cohort studyPregnant women having a singleton live hospital birth in New York State
N = 58,462
Perinatal Database (2007–2011)Fair
Penrod, 2000 [21]USA- Kessner
- APNCUI
Retrospective cohort studyWomen with prenatal care information on the birth certificate from the 1980 National Natality Survey
N = 7973
Survey (1980)Poor
Perloff, 1997 [22]USA- Kessner
- APNCUI
Retrospective cohort studyWomen with birth certificate data from New York city
N = 255,884
Administrative health database (1991–1992)Fair
Rosenberg, 2004 [23]USA- APNCUI
- Cluster solution
Retrospective cohort studyWomen with live birth data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey
N = 3544
Survey (1988)Good
VanderWeele, 2009 [14]USA- Kessner
- APNCUI
- GINDEX
Retrospective cohort studyWomen with live birth data from the 2003 National Center for Health Statistics Linked Birth and Infant Death Cohort files
N = NR
Administrative health database (2003)Good
  1. APNCUI Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, CTP Content and Timing of Care in Pregnancy, GINDEX Graduated Prenatal Care Utilization Index, IPR Infrastructure, process, and results, LV-APNC Last Visit Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index, PHS/EPPC United States Public Health Service Expert Panel on Prenatal Care, R-GINDEX Revised-Graduated Prenatal Care Utilization Index, NR Not reported, USA United States of America