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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics and screening markers

From: First-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein is not a good predictor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective study of 3325 cases

  MS-AFP ≥ 2.5 MoM MS-AFP < 2.5 MoM P value
Maternal age (years) 30.55 ± 4.43 30.99 ± 4.36 0.139
Maternal age ≥ 35 years (n, %) 35 (14.58) 571 (18.51) 0.129
Maternal weight (kg) 55.65 ± 9.31 55.63 ± 8.59 0.980
Maternal height (cm) 160.09 ± 5.10 160.40 ± 4.80 0.353
Body mass index 21.66 ± 3.44 21.61 ± 3.12 0.823
Neonatal gender (male/female) 114/126 1546/1439 0.435
Parity (2/1/0) 68/78/94 755/1028/1302 0.392
Smoking history (n, %) 0 (0.00) 8 (0.26) 1.000
Gestational diabetes mellitus (n, %) 26 (10.83) 293 (9.50) 0.499
Assisted reproductive technology (n, %) 14 (5.83) 78 (2.53) 0.003
Caesarean section (n, %) 104 (43.33) 1264 (40.97) 0.474
Forceps delivery (n, %) 6 (2.50) 58 (1.88) 0.501
NT MoM (median, IQR) 0.95 (0.80~1.13) 0.98 (0.83~1.17) 0.105
β-HCG MoM (median, IQR) 0.98 (0.60~1.62) 1.01 (0.63~1.62) 0.430
PAPP-A MoM (median, IQR) 0.91 (0.68~1.27) 0.99 (0.73~1.37) 0.001
AFP MoM (median, IQR) 2.97 (2.67~3.53) 1.03 (0.76~1.58) 0.000
  1. AFP Alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG β-human chorionic gonadotropin, PAPP-A Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A, NT Nuchal translucency, MoM Multiple of the median, IQR Interquartile range