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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics and screening markers

From: First-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein is not a good predictor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective study of 3325 cases

 MS-AFP ≥ 2.5 MoMMS-AFP < 2.5 MoMP value
Maternal age (years)30.55 ± 4.4330.99 ± 4.360.139
Maternal age ≥ 35 years (n, %)35 (14.58)571 (18.51)0.129
Maternal weight (kg)55.65 ± 9.3155.63 ± 8.590.980
Maternal height (cm)160.09 ± 5.10160.40 ± 4.800.353
Body mass index21.66 ± 3.4421.61 ± 3.120.823
Neonatal gender (male/female)114/1261546/14390.435
Parity (2/1/0)68/78/94755/1028/13020.392
Smoking history (n, %)0 (0.00)8 (0.26)1.000
Gestational diabetes mellitus (n, %)26 (10.83)293 (9.50)0.499
Assisted reproductive technology (n, %)14 (5.83)78 (2.53)0.003
Caesarean section (n, %)104 (43.33)1264 (40.97)0.474
Forceps delivery (n, %)6 (2.50)58 (1.88)0.501
NT MoM (median, IQR)0.95 (0.80~1.13)0.98 (0.83~1.17)0.105
β-HCG MoM (median, IQR)0.98 (0.60~1.62)1.01 (0.63~1.62)0.430
PAPP-A MoM (median, IQR)0.91 (0.68~1.27)0.99 (0.73~1.37)0.001
AFP MoM (median, IQR)2.97 (2.67~3.53)1.03 (0.76~1.58)0.000
  1. AFP Alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG β-human chorionic gonadotropin, PAPP-A Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A, NT Nuchal translucency, MoM Multiple of the median, IQR Interquartile range