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Table 1 Unadjusted association between inadequate ANC visits and potentially important variables: 2014–15 Demographic and Health Survey data

From: Are perceived barriers to accessing health care associated with inadequate antenatal care visits among women of reproductive age in Rwanda?

VariablesOverall sampleTimely with 4 visitsNot timely/< 4 visits or both 
 n (%a)n (%a)n (%a)P-value
Sample size(n)587622453631 
Barriers to care< 0.001
 No2303 (38.3)982 (42.3)1321 (35.8) 
 Yes3573 (61.3)2245 (57.7)2310 (64.2) 
Pregnancy status< 0.001
 Planned and wanted3556 (60.8)1523 (67.8)2033 (56.5) 
 Unplanned but wanted later1566 (26.4)503 (22.4)1063 (28.8) 
 Unplanned and unwanted754 (12.9)219 (9.8)535 (14.7) 
Age (%)< 0.001
 15–24 years1243 (21.4)472 (22.0)771 (21.1) 
 25–34 years313 (52.7)1257 (55.2)1875 (51.2) 
 35+ years1501 (25.8)516 (22.8)985 (27.7) 
Wealth group0.379
 Poor2594 (45.0)954 (43.7)1640 (45.8) 
 Middle class1106 (19.8)430 (20.2)676 (19.6) 
 Rich2176 (35.3)861 (36.2)1315 (34.7) 
Education< 0.001
 No education/primary5007 (86.4)1849 (84.0)3158 (87.9) 
 Secondary or higher869 (13.6)396 (16.0)473 (12.1) 
Residence0.725
 Rural4575 (83.1)1727 (82.8)2848 (83.3) 
 Urban1301 (16.9)518 (17.2)783 (16.7) 
Marital status< 0.001
 Never in union614 (10.3)172 (7.7)442 (11.8) 
 Married or living with partner4685 (80.0)1875 (83.5)2810 (77.8) 
 Previously married577 (9.7)198 (8.7)379 (10.3) 
Employment status0.015
 Not working387 (6.4)128 (5.3)259 (7.0) 
 Skilled994 (15.5)418 (16.8)576 (14.7) 
 Unskilled4495 (78.1)1699 (77.8)2796 (78.3) 
Watch TV or listen to radio at least once a week0.012
 No2422 (42.1)866 (39.8)1556 (43.4) 
 Yes3454 (57.9)1379 (60.2)2075 (56.6) 
Insurance coverage (%)< 0.001
 No1598 (27.7)498 (23.0)1100 (30.7) 
 Yes4278 (72.3)1747 (77.0)2531 (69.3) 
Number of living children (mean, SD)2.8 (1.6)2.6 (0.04)2.9 (1.8)< 0.001
  1. SD Standard Deviation
  2. § P-values estimated using Thomas-Rao modification
  3. a Weighted estimates (adjusting for sampling weight, strata and sampling unit)