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Table 1 The distribution of characteristics of all women according to their smoking status during pregnancy; aggregated years from 2010 to 2017

From: Trends in smoking during pregnancy by socioeconomic characteristics in the United States, 2010–2017

 Overall na (%b)Smoker na (%b)Nonsmoker na (%b)P-valuec
Total27,912,380 (100.0)2,261,826 (8.1)25,650,554 (91.9) 
Age   < 0.001
 Under 1521,028 (0.1)532 (0.0)20,496 (0.1) 
 15–19185,7349 (6.7)193,188 (8.5)1,664,161 (6.5) 
 20–246,118,273 (21.9)768,677 (34.0)5,349,596 (20.9) 
 25–298,037,230 (28.8)698,979 (30.9)7,338,251 (28.6) 
 30–347,450,554 (26.7)408,433 (18.1)7,042,121 (27.5) 
 35–393,583,835 (12.8)159,177 (7.0)3,424,658 (13.4) 
 40–44784,035 (2.8)31,486 (1.4)752,549 (2.9) 
 45 and over60,076 (0.2)1354 (0.1)58,722 (0.2) 
Race   < 0.001
 White21,280,913 (76.2)1,891,554 (83.6)19,389,359 (75.6) 
 Black4,372,566 (15.7)296,856 (13.1)4,075,710 (15.9) 
 American Indian/Alaskan Native307,120 (1.1)50,974 (2.3)256,146 (1.0) 
 Asian/Pacific Islander1,951,781 (7.0)22,442 (1.0)1,929,339 (7.5) 
Educational attainment   < 0.001
 Less than 12 years4,342,229 (15.7)585,466 (26.0)3,756,763 (14.8) 
 High school diploma or GED6,894,215 (25.0)907,369 (40.4)5,986,846 (23.6) 
 Some college or associate’s degree7,988,791 (29.0)680,190 (30.2)7,308,601 (28.8) 
 Bachelor’s degree5,320,424 (19.3)62,209 (2.8)5,258,215 (20.7) 
 Master’s degree or higher3,043,790 (11.0)13,377 (0.6)3,030,413 (12.0) 
Year   < 0.001
 20102,620,675 (9.4)241,782 (10.7)2,378,893 (9.3) 
 20113,136,124 (11.2)280,300 (12.4)2,855,824 (11.1) 
 20123,317,588 (11.9)288,811 (12.8)3,028,777 (11.8) 
 20133,392,135 (12.2)287,250 (12.7)3,104,885 (12.1) 
 20143,779,767 (13.5)316,215 (14.0)3,463,552 (13.5) 
 20153,883,535 (13.9)299,705 (13.3)3,583,830 (14.0) 
 20163,936,643 (14.1)282,788 (12.5)3,653,855 (14.2) 
 20173,845,913 (13.8)264,975 (11.7)3,580,938 (14.0) 
  1. aunweighted frequency
  2. b% = weighted column percentage
  3. cP-value corresponding to the Rao-Scott Chi-Square tests