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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Women’s experiences of a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

Author/Date/country Aim of study Method of data collection/point of data collection Conceptual basis underlying the study (e.g. thematic analysis, grounded theory) Participants/Recruitment/N/Population description
Studies collecting data during pregnancy
 Carolan/2013 [29] Australia To understand the experiences of women self-managing GDM Phone interview, face-to-face interview and focus group Thematic analysis Pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM/purposive sample/
N = 15
Caucasian, Asian, South Asian, Indian and Arabic
 Carolan-Olah et al./2017 [12] Australia To explore the experiences of a group of Hispanic women of Mexican origin who had been diagnosed with GDM Semi-structured interviews Thematic analysis Pregnant Hispanic women with a diagnosis of GDM/convenience sample/
N = 18
Hispanic women of Mexican origin
 Doran/ 2008 [30] Australia To explore lifestyle changes during pregnancy and post-partum with women who had experienced a pregnancy complicated by GDM Interviews Thematic analysis Pregnant women with GDM and women who has accessed centres for GDM management within the past 18 months/purposive sample/
N = 38
Pacific Islanders
 Hjelm et al./2005 [41] Sweden The aim of the present study was to compare beliefs about health and illness in women with GDM born in Swedish and in the Middle East Semi-structured interviews Thematic analysis Pregnant women with GDM
Interviews conducted at weeks 34–38/consecutive sample/
N = 27 (Sweden = 13)
Swedish/Middle Eastern
 Persson et al./2010 [13] Sweden To describe pregnant women’s experiences of acquiring and living with GDM during pregnancy Semi-structured interviews Grounded theory Pregnant women with GDM/convenience sample
N = 10
Swedish
 Kaptein et al./2015 [45] Canada To gain insight into the reactions and experiences of women from multiple ethnic background diagnosed with GDM Semi-structured telephone interviews Thematic analysis Pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM/consecutive sample/
N = 19
Non-Caucasian (79%)
 Trutnovsky et al./2012 [59] Austria To explore concerns, treatment motivation, mood state, QoL, and treatment satisfaction of women treated for GDM. Semi-structured interviews and survey Thematic analysis Pregnant women with GDM/convenience sample/
N = 45
Caucasian
 Wah et al./2018 [60] Australia To explore the understanding and self-management experiences of GDM among Chinese migrants Semi-structured face-to-face interviews Thematic analysis Pregnant migrants of China ethnicity residing in Australia with a diagnosis of GDM/convenience sample/
N = 18
Chinese
 Salomon et Soares/2004 [55] Portugal To understand how gestational diabetes patients experience the impact of this diagnosis during pregnancy and of significance they attribute to the disease Semi-structured interviews Content analysis Pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM/unclear
N = 9
Not reported
 Hui et al./2014 [44] Canada To explore the stress and anxiety experienced during dietary management for women with GDM Food choice map semi structured interview
Interviews conducted at 26–28 weeks gestation
Not specifically reported, described as thematic
Themes
Pregnant women with diagnosis of GDM/purposive sample/
N = 30
Caucasian, Asian, African, and Aboriginal
 Hjelm et al. 2012 [42] Sweden Explore beliefs about health and illness in women with gestational diabetes living in Sweden and born in Sweden or Africa Semi-structured interviews
Interviews conducted at weeks 34–38
Categories with description extract Pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM/consecutive sample/
N = 23 (N = 13, Sweden)
Swedish/African
 Hjelm et al. 2008 [43] Sweden To explore beliefs about health, illness and health care in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) managed in two different organisations based on diabetology or obstetrics Semi-structured interviews
Interviews conducted at gestational weeks 34–38
Thematic analysis Women with a diagnosis of GDM/consecutive sample/
N = 23
Swedish/African
 Hirst et al. 2012 [37] Vietnam To determine attitudes and health behaviours of pregnant women with GDM in Vietnam Focus groups Thematic analysis Women with a diagnosis of GDM/purposive sample
(Women sampled at gestational ages 28–38 weeks)
N = 34
Vietnamese
 Han et al. 2015 [36] Australia To explore women’s experiences after being diagnosed with borderline GDM Semi-structured interviews Content analysis
Categories
Women with a diagnosis of borderline GDM
Borderline GDM as a positive 50 g OGCT (1 h venous plasma glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L) followed by abnormal oral75g OGTT (fasting venous plasma glucose < 5.5 mmol/L and a 2 h glucose < 7.8 mmol/L) Eligible if they were participants in the IDEAL study/purposive sample/
N = 22
Caucasian and Asian
 Ge, Wikby et al. 2016 [35] Sweden To explore beliefs about illness and health and self-care behaviour among urban Chinese women Semi-structured interviews Content analysis
Categories
Pregnant women with diagnosis of GDM, 34-38th gestational weeks/purposive sample/
N = 17
Chinese
 Ge, Albin et al. 2016 [34] Sweden To explore beliefs about health and illness and health-related behaviours among Chinese women with GDM in a Chinese sociocultural context. Semi-structured interviews Content analysis
Categories
Pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM, 34-38th gestational weeks/purposive sample/
N = 15
Chinese
 Bandyopadhyay et al. 2011 [28] Australia To explore the experiences and understanding of South Asian women after a diagnosis of GDM Face-to-face interviews Not specifically reported, described as thematic analysis
Themes
South Asian women diagnosed with GDM/convenience sample/
N = 17
South Asian
 Araujo et al./2013 [26] Brazil To understand the significance of the experiences of women with gestational diabetes mellitus Open interviews and participant drawings
4 women in 1st trimester, 3 in 2nd trimester & 3 in 3rd trimester
Not specifically reported, described as thematic analysis Women with GDM diagnosis/convenience sample/
N = 12
South American
 Evan et Brien 2005 [12] Canada To gain an in-depth understanding of GDM as experienced by pregnant women Interviews
Interviews conducted prior to delivery and 6–8 weeks postpartum
Thematic analysis Women with GDM diagnosis/purposive sample/
N = 12
Caucasian
Studies collecting data within the 1st 12 months post-natal
 Bandyopadhyay et al./2015 [27] Australia To capture in-depth exploration of the experiences and perspectives on postpartum glucose tolerance test screening of South Asian women diagnosed with GDM Interviews
Interviews were conducted antenatally after diagnosis, after birth, 9 weeks to 52 weeks
Thematic analysis South Asian women with diagnosis of GDM/convenience sample/
N = 40
South Asian
 Draffin et al./2016 [19] United Kingdom To explore the concerns, needs and knowledge of women diagnosed with GDM Focus groups Thematic analysis Pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM or a history of GDM within past 12 months/convenience sample/
N = 19
White, Black African, Pakistani Latin American, Bangladeshi, Indian
 Doran et Davis 2010 [31] Tongan To explore GDM in Tonga, with women who experienced GDM and health professionals who worked in the GDM/diabetes area Semi-structured face to face interviews Not specifically reported, described as thematic analysis
Themes
Women who had experienced GDM in the previous 12 months /unclear/
N = 11
Pacific Islanders
 Figueroa Gray et al./2017 [33] USA To foreground women’s experience with insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Focus group Thematic analysis Women with GDM history and completed at least one prescription for insulin or oral hypoglycaemic medication during pregnancy within past 3 years/purposive sample/
N = 16
Caucasian, African American, Asian, Hispanic or Latina
 Hjelm et al. 2009 [40] Sweden To explore beliefs about health and illness 3 month postpartum in women born in Sweden and the Middle East, and to study whether they perceive gestational diabetes mellitus as a prediabetic condition Interviews Headings and descriptions
Divided into Middle-Eastern born and Swedish born women
Women 3 months postpartum who had previously had GDM /consecutive sample/
N = 27
Swedish and Middle Eastern
 Hjelm et al./2012 [42] Sweden To explore the development over time of belief about health, illness and health care in migrant women with gestational diabetes born in the Middle East and living in Sweden Semi-structured interviews
Interviews conducted at weeks 34–38, three and 14 months after delivery
Content analysis Middle Eastern women with a diagnosis of GDM/consecutive sample/
N = 14
Swedish and Middle Eastern
 Hjelm et al. 2018 [39] Sweden To explore the development over time, during and after pregnancy, of beliefs about health, illness and healthcare in migrant women with GDM born in Africa living in Sweden Semi-structured
Interviews conducted in gestational weeks 34–38 and 3 and 14 months after delivery
Framework analysis using the Health Belief Model Women with a diagnosis of GDM/convenience sample/
N = 9
African
 Kilgour et al./2015 [46] Australia To explore and assess women’s communication experiences of postnatal GDM follow-up Interviews
Interviews at 12–16 weeks after birth
Thematic analysis Women with GDM diagnosis/“theoretical sample”/
N = 13
Caucasian, Asian and Indian
 Lawson et Rajaram/1994 [47] USA To explore the meaning women attach to GDM Semi-structured interviews
Interviews once prenatally and again at 6 weeks
Thematic analysis Women with diagnosis of GDM/purposive sample/
N = 17
Caucasian, Black and Asian-American
 Neufeld/2011 [49] Canada To describe how aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with GDM Interviews Thematic analysis Aboriginal women with GDM or a previous diagnosis of GDM within past 5 years/convenience sample/
N = 29
Aboriginal
 Svensson et al./2018 [56] Denmark To examine how Danish women with a history of GDM experience the transition from a GDM-affected pregnancy to the postpartum period Interviews
Interviews within 3–5 months after delivery
Content analysis
Themes
Women diagnosed with GDM/convenience sample/
N = 6
Caucasian
 Tang et al./2015 [57] USA To gain insight of Hispanic and African-American women’s views on prevention of T2DM after GDM. Semi-structured interviews Thematic analysis Women with a history of GDM (within 12 months of delivery at the time of initial contact)/purposive sample/
N = 23
African-American
 Whitty-Rogers et al./2016 [61] Canada To explore Mi’kmaq women’s experiences with GDM. Conversational interviews Hermeneutic phenomenology
Themes
Mi’kmaq women with history of GDM/purposive and snowballing sample/
N = 9
Aboriginal
Studies collecting data at follow up screening for Type II diabetes
 Abraham et Wilk/2014 [25] USA To explore the lived experiences of women in rural communities with GDM and potentially gain insight into the low reported return rates for PPG testing Semi-structured interviews Phenomenological approach
Themes
Women with a history of GDM in the last 2 to 5 years/purposive and snowballing sample/
N = 10
Caucasian
 Eades et al./2018 [32] UK To explore experiences, knowledge and perceptions of women with GDM to inform the design of interventions to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes Semi-structured interviews Theoretical framework – Self-Regulation Themes Women with history of GDM diagnosis, within 1-year post delivery/convenience sample/
N = 16
Caucasian, Asian, Black and African
 Nielsen et al./2015 [50] Denmark To improve our understanding of how women with gestational diabetes experience the treatment and care offered by a regional health service. To understand how the women’s experiences influenced their subsequent participation in follow-up screening. Semi-structured interviews Thematic analysis Women with a previous diagnosis of GDM within 1–2 years after birth/convenience sample/
N = 7
Caucasian and Asian
 Parsons et al./2018 [51] UK To describe the experiences of women from a demographically diverse population of their GDM and GDM care, to help inform healthcare delivery for women both during and after pregnancy Interviews and focus groups Framework analysisThemes Women with a previous diagnosis of GDM (within past 5 years)/purposive sample/
N = 50
Black, Caucasian, and Asian
 Razee et al./2010 [54] Australia To explore the beliefs, attitudes, social support, environmental influences and other factors related to diabetes risk behaviours among Arabic, Cantonese/Mandarin, and English speaking women with recent GDM Semi-structured interviews Not specifically reported, described as thematic analysis Women who had completed a GDM pregnancy in the previous 6–36 months/purposive sample/
N = 57
Middle Eastern, Chinese and White Australian
 Rafii et al./2017 [53] Iran To understand Iranian women’s experiences in diabetes screening after childbirth Semi-structured interviews
Interviews at 6–21 months postpartum
Grounded theory methodology
Themes and sub-themes
Women with previous GDM diagnosis /purposive sample/
N = 22
Asian
 Tierney et al./2015 [58] Ireland To assess the lifestyle behaviours undertaken by a group of women both during and after their GDM pregnancy Semi-structured interview Thematic analysis Women with a history of GDM in the previous 3.6–6.6 years/convenience sample/
N = 13
Not reported
 Pennington et al./2017 [52] Australia To explore the views of GPs and women who have had GDM Semi-structured interviews Content analysis Women with a history of GDM/purposive sample/
Timeframe not reported
N = 16
Not reported
 Lie et al./2013 [48] United Kingdom To explore factors influencing post-natal health behaviours following the experience of gestational diabetes Semi-structured interviews Framework analysis Women with a history of GDM within the last 2 years/purposive sample/
N = 37
Caucasian and non- Caucasian