Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Women’s experiences of a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

Author/Date/countryAim of studyMethod of data collection/point of data collectionConceptual basis underlying the study (e.g. thematic analysis, grounded theory)Participants/Recruitment/N/Population description
Studies collecting data during pregnancy
 Carolan/2013 [29] AustraliaTo understand the experiences of women self-managing GDMPhone interview, face-to-face interview and focus groupThematic analysisPregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM/purposive sample/
N = 15
Caucasian, Asian, South Asian, Indian and Arabic
 Carolan-Olah et al./2017 [12] AustraliaTo explore the experiences of a group of Hispanic women of Mexican origin who had been diagnosed with GDMSemi-structured interviewsThematic analysisPregnant Hispanic women with a diagnosis of GDM/convenience sample/
N = 18
Hispanic women of Mexican origin
 Doran/ 2008 [30] AustraliaTo explore lifestyle changes during pregnancy and post-partum with women who had experienced a pregnancy complicated by GDMInterviewsThematic analysisPregnant women with GDM and women who has accessed centres for GDM management within the past 18 months/purposive sample/
N = 38
Pacific Islanders
 Hjelm et al./2005 [41] SwedenThe aim of the present study was to compare beliefs about health and illness in women with GDM born in Swedish and in the Middle EastSemi-structured interviewsThematic analysisPregnant women with GDM
Interviews conducted at weeks 34–38/consecutive sample/
N = 27 (Sweden = 13)
Swedish/Middle Eastern
 Persson et al./2010 [13] SwedenTo describe pregnant women’s experiences of acquiring and living with GDM during pregnancySemi-structured interviewsGrounded theoryPregnant women with GDM/convenience sample
N = 10
Swedish
 Kaptein et al./2015 [45] CanadaTo gain insight into the reactions and experiences of women from multiple ethnic background diagnosed with GDMSemi-structured telephone interviewsThematic analysisPregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM/consecutive sample/
N = 19
Non-Caucasian (79%)
 Trutnovsky et al./2012 [59] AustriaTo explore concerns, treatment motivation, mood state, QoL, and treatment satisfaction of women treated for GDM.Semi-structured interviews and surveyThematic analysisPregnant women with GDM/convenience sample/
N = 45
Caucasian
 Wah et al./2018 [60] AustraliaTo explore the understanding and self-management experiences of GDM among Chinese migrantsSemi-structured face-to-face interviewsThematic analysisPregnant migrants of China ethnicity residing in Australia with a diagnosis of GDM/convenience sample/
N = 18
Chinese
 Salomon et Soares/2004 [55] PortugalTo understand how gestational diabetes patients experience the impact of this diagnosis during pregnancy and of significance they attribute to the diseaseSemi-structured interviewsContent analysisPregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM/unclear
N = 9
Not reported
 Hui et al./2014 [44] CanadaTo explore the stress and anxiety experienced during dietary management for women with GDMFood choice map semi structured interview
Interviews conducted at 26–28 weeks gestation
Not specifically reported, described as thematic
Themes
Pregnant women with diagnosis of GDM/purposive sample/
N = 30
Caucasian, Asian, African, and Aboriginal
 Hjelm et al. 2012 [42] SwedenExplore beliefs about health and illness in women with gestational diabetes living in Sweden and born in Sweden or AfricaSemi-structured interviews
Interviews conducted at weeks 34–38
Categories with description extractPregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM/consecutive sample/
N = 23 (N = 13, Sweden)
Swedish/African
 Hjelm et al. 2008 [43] SwedenTo explore beliefs about health, illness and health care in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) managed in two different organisations based on diabetology or obstetricsSemi-structured interviews
Interviews conducted at gestational weeks 34–38
Thematic analysisWomen with a diagnosis of GDM/consecutive sample/
N = 23
Swedish/African
 Hirst et al. 2012 [37] VietnamTo determine attitudes and health behaviours of pregnant women with GDM in VietnamFocus groupsThematic analysisWomen with a diagnosis of GDM/purposive sample
(Women sampled at gestational ages 28–38 weeks)
N = 34
Vietnamese
 Han et al. 2015 [36] AustraliaTo explore women’s experiences after being diagnosed with borderline GDMSemi-structured interviewsContent analysis
Categories
Women with a diagnosis of borderline GDM
Borderline GDM as a positive 50 g OGCT (1 h venous plasma glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L) followed by abnormal oral75g OGTT (fasting venous plasma glucose < 5.5 mmol/L and a 2 h glucose < 7.8 mmol/L) Eligible if they were participants in the IDEAL study/purposive sample/
N = 22
Caucasian and Asian
 Ge, Wikby et al. 2016 [35] SwedenTo explore beliefs about illness and health and self-care behaviour among urban Chinese womenSemi-structured interviewsContent analysis
Categories
Pregnant women with diagnosis of GDM, 34-38th gestational weeks/purposive sample/
N = 17
Chinese
 Ge, Albin et al. 2016 [34] SwedenTo explore beliefs about health and illness and health-related behaviours among Chinese women with GDM in a Chinese sociocultural context.Semi-structured interviewsContent analysis
Categories
Pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM, 34-38th gestational weeks/purposive sample/
N = 15
Chinese
 Bandyopadhyay et al. 2011 [28] AustraliaTo explore the experiences and understanding of South Asian women after a diagnosis of GDMFace-to-face interviewsNot specifically reported, described as thematic analysis
Themes
South Asian women diagnosed with GDM/convenience sample/
N = 17
South Asian
 Araujo et al./2013 [26] BrazilTo understand the significance of the experiences of women with gestational diabetes mellitusOpen interviews and participant drawings
4 women in 1st trimester, 3 in 2nd trimester & 3 in 3rd trimester
Not specifically reported, described as thematic analysisWomen with GDM diagnosis/convenience sample/
N = 12
South American
 Evan et Brien 2005 [12] CanadaTo gain an in-depth understanding of GDM as experienced by pregnant womenInterviews
Interviews conducted prior to delivery and 6–8 weeks postpartum
Thematic analysisWomen with GDM diagnosis/purposive sample/
N = 12
Caucasian
Studies collecting data within the 1st 12 months post-natal
 Bandyopadhyay et al./2015 [27] AustraliaTo capture in-depth exploration of the experiences and perspectives on postpartum glucose tolerance test screening of South Asian women diagnosed with GDMInterviews
Interviews were conducted antenatally after diagnosis, after birth, 9 weeks to 52 weeks
Thematic analysisSouth Asian women with diagnosis of GDM/convenience sample/
N = 40
South Asian
 Draffin et al./2016 [19] United KingdomTo explore the concerns, needs and knowledge of women diagnosed with GDMFocus groupsThematic analysisPregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM or a history of GDM within past 12 months/convenience sample/
N = 19
White, Black African, Pakistani Latin American, Bangladeshi, Indian
 Doran et Davis 2010 [31] TonganTo explore GDM in Tonga, with women who experienced GDM and health professionals who worked in the GDM/diabetes areaSemi-structured face to face interviewsNot specifically reported, described as thematic analysis
Themes
Women who had experienced GDM in the previous 12 months /unclear/
N = 11
Pacific Islanders
 Figueroa Gray et al./2017 [33] USATo foreground women’s experience with insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents.Focus groupThematic analysisWomen with GDM history and completed at least one prescription for insulin or oral hypoglycaemic medication during pregnancy within past 3 years/purposive sample/
N = 16
Caucasian, African American, Asian, Hispanic or Latina
 Hjelm et al. 2009 [40] SwedenTo explore beliefs about health and illness 3 month postpartum in women born in Sweden and the Middle East, and to study whether they perceive gestational diabetes mellitus as a prediabetic conditionInterviewsHeadings and descriptions
Divided into Middle-Eastern born and Swedish born women
Women 3 months postpartum who had previously had GDM /consecutive sample/
N = 27
Swedish and Middle Eastern
 Hjelm et al./2012 [42] SwedenTo explore the development over time of belief about health, illness and health care in migrant women with gestational diabetes born in the Middle East and living in SwedenSemi-structured interviews
Interviews conducted at weeks 34–38, three and 14 months after delivery
Content analysisMiddle Eastern women with a diagnosis of GDM/consecutive sample/
N = 14
Swedish and Middle Eastern
 Hjelm et al. 2018 [39] SwedenTo explore the development over time, during and after pregnancy, of beliefs about health, illness and healthcare in migrant women with GDM born in Africa living in SwedenSemi-structured
Interviews conducted in gestational weeks 34–38 and 3 and 14 months after delivery
Framework analysis using the Health Belief ModelWomen with a diagnosis of GDM/convenience sample/
N = 9
African
 Kilgour et al./2015 [46] AustraliaTo explore and assess women’s communication experiences of postnatal GDM follow-upInterviews
Interviews at 12–16 weeks after birth
Thematic analysisWomen with GDM diagnosis/“theoretical sample”/
N = 13
Caucasian, Asian and Indian
 Lawson et Rajaram/1994 [47] USATo explore the meaning women attach to GDMSemi-structured interviews
Interviews once prenatally and again at 6 weeks
Thematic analysisWomen with diagnosis of GDM/purposive sample/
N = 17
Caucasian, Black and Asian-American
 Neufeld/2011 [49] CanadaTo describe how aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with GDMInterviewsThematic analysisAboriginal women with GDM or a previous diagnosis of GDM within past 5 years/convenience sample/
N = 29
Aboriginal
 Svensson et al./2018 [56] DenmarkTo examine how Danish women with a history of GDM experience the transition from a GDM-affected pregnancy to the postpartum periodInterviews
Interviews within 3–5 months after delivery
Content analysis
Themes
Women diagnosed with GDM/convenience sample/
N = 6
Caucasian
 Tang et al./2015 [57] USATo gain insight of Hispanic and African-American women’s views on prevention of T2DM after GDM.Semi-structured interviewsThematic analysisWomen with a history of GDM (within 12 months of delivery at the time of initial contact)/purposive sample/
N = 23
African-American
 Whitty-Rogers et al./2016 [61] CanadaTo explore Mi’kmaq women’s experiences with GDM.Conversational interviewsHermeneutic phenomenology
Themes
Mi’kmaq women with history of GDM/purposive and snowballing sample/
N = 9
Aboriginal
Studies collecting data at follow up screening for Type II diabetes
 Abraham et Wilk/2014 [25] USATo explore the lived experiences of women in rural communities with GDM and potentially gain insight into the low reported return rates for PPG testingSemi-structured interviewsPhenomenological approach
Themes
Women with a history of GDM in the last 2 to 5 years/purposive and snowballing sample/
N = 10
Caucasian
 Eades et al./2018 [32] UKTo explore experiences, knowledge and perceptions of women with GDM to inform the design of interventions to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetesSemi-structured interviewsTheoretical framework – Self-Regulation ThemesWomen with history of GDM diagnosis, within 1-year post delivery/convenience sample/
N = 16
Caucasian, Asian, Black and African
 Nielsen et al./2015 [50] DenmarkTo improve our understanding of how women with gestational diabetes experience the treatment and care offered by a regional health service. To understand how the women’s experiences influenced their subsequent participation in follow-up screening.Semi-structured interviewsThematic analysisWomen with a previous diagnosis of GDM within 1–2 years after birth/convenience sample/
N = 7
Caucasian and Asian
 Parsons et al./2018 [51] UKTo describe the experiences of women from a demographically diverse population of their GDM and GDM care, to help inform healthcare delivery for women both during and after pregnancyInterviews and focus groupsFramework analysisThemesWomen with a previous diagnosis of GDM (within past 5 years)/purposive sample/
N = 50
Black, Caucasian, and Asian
 Razee et al./2010 [54] AustraliaTo explore the beliefs, attitudes, social support, environmental influences and other factors related to diabetes risk behaviours among Arabic, Cantonese/Mandarin, and English speaking women with recent GDMSemi-structured interviewsNot specifically reported, described as thematic analysisWomen who had completed a GDM pregnancy in the previous 6–36 months/purposive sample/
N = 57
Middle Eastern, Chinese and White Australian
 Rafii et al./2017 [53] IranTo understand Iranian women’s experiences in diabetes screening after childbirthSemi-structured interviews
Interviews at 6–21 months postpartum
Grounded theory methodology
Themes and sub-themes
Women with previous GDM diagnosis /purposive sample/
N = 22
Asian
 Tierney et al./2015 [58] IrelandTo assess the lifestyle behaviours undertaken by a group of women both during and after their GDM pregnancySemi-structured interviewThematic analysisWomen with a history of GDM in the previous 3.6–6.6 years/convenience sample/
N = 13
Not reported
 Pennington et al./2017 [52] AustraliaTo explore the views of GPs and women who have had GDMSemi-structured interviewsContent analysisWomen with a history of GDM/purposive sample/
Timeframe not reported
N = 16
Not reported
 Lie et al./2013 [48] United KingdomTo explore factors influencing post-natal health behaviours following the experience of gestational diabetesSemi-structured interviewsFramework analysisWomen with a history of GDM within the last 2 years/purposive sample/
N = 37
Caucasian and non- Caucasian