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Table 1 Characteristics of pregnancies according to subgroups

From: Women with a predisposition for diabetes have an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially in combination with pregestational overweight

 Overweight GROUP 1Predisp to diabetes over weight GROUP 2Predisp to diabetes normal weight GROUP 3Controls GROUP 4p-value Over weight vs. ControlsP-value predisp to diabetes over weight vs. Over weightP-value predisp to diabetes normal weight vs Controls
N2466759110,405   
Frequency LGAa (%)7.123.311.62.9< 0.001< 0.001< 0.001
Macrosomia (%)28.534.728.617.6< 0.0010.4730.012
Frequency caesarean sectiona (%)14.924.014.310.1< 0.0010.0310.2
Low Apgarb 1 min (%)8.414.96.66.2< 0.0010.050.9
Low Apgarb 5 min (%)2.11.42.21.50.40.60.6
Low Apgarb 10 min (%)0.91.71.40.60.90.60.4
Birth weight (g)3689 (570–5680)3760 (870–5800)3595 (1950–5250)3530 (540–5820)< 0.0010.1650.042
Gestational length (weeks)40.1 (25–44)39.6 (26–42)39.7 (34–42)40 (24–44)0.120.0010.08
BMI Median27.1 (25.0–45.4)28.3 (25.1–44.7)21.5 (16.9–24.9)21.5 (13.2–25.0)< 0.001< 0.0010.45
Median gestational weight gain (kg)13.0 (−7–30)11.0 (0–24)14.5 (5–27)14.0 (−2–38)< 0.0010.030.297
Median age of mother all pregnancies (yrs)32 (17–46)32 (19–42)29 (19–41)30 (17–49)< 0.0010.8270.552
Smoking (%)22.0/236926.1/6929.1/8622.0/98650.960.410.12
  1. aData regarding LGA, caesarean section, forceps delivery and vacuum extraction were collected from SMBR
  2. bA low Apgar score was defined as ≤7