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Table 5 Subgroup analysis for effects of knowledge on self-medication by socio-demographics

From: Self-medication and knowledge among pregnant women attending primary healthcare services in Malang, Indonesia: a cross-sectional study

OutcomesEducationOccupation
Middle school and lowerHigh school and higherHomemakerEmployed
aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Higher level of knowledge a8.18
(1.70–39.35)**
1.23
(0.53–2.86)
3.02
(1.18–7.70)*
0.67
(0.15–3.04)
Correct knowledge of risks of taking OTC medication during pregnancyb1.09
(0.28–4.20)
0.17
(0.07–0.42)***
  1. OTC over-the-counter, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confident interval
  2. p value * < 0.05; ** < 0.01; *** < 0.001
  3. aKnowledge was categorized into two levels: higher and lower. Results were adjusted for socio-demographic variables (such as age, gestational age, self-rated health status, education, occupation, household income, and residence) excluding variables treated as the effect modifier
  4. bKnowledge was categorized into two levels: correct and incorrect answer. Results were adjusted for socio-demographic variables (such as age, gestational age, occupation, self-rated health status, household income, and residence)