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Table 2 Knowledge of OTC medication

From: Self-medication and knowledge among pregnant women attending primary healthcare services in Malang, Indonesia: a cross-sectional study

StatementsTotal (n = 333)
n (%)
Self-medication 
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
p valuea
OTC medications are primarily used to treat condition that do not need direct supervision from doctors   0.471
 Correct187 (56.2)24 (61.5)163 (55.4) 
 Incorrect146 (43.8)15 (38.5)131 (44.6) 
OTC medication is used for treating minor illness/minor injuries   0.057
 Correct229 (68.8)32 (82.1)197 (67.0) 
 Incorrect104 (31.2)7 (17.9)97 (33.0) 
Antibiotic is one of OTC medication   0.509
 Correct96 (28.8)13 (33.3)83 (28.2) 
 Incorrect237 (71.2)26 (66.7)211 (71.8) 
Vitamin is one of OTC medication   0.003
 Correct191(57.4)31 (79.5)160 (54.4) 
 Incorrect142 (42.6)8 (20.5)134 (45.6) 
The decision for using OTC medication is primarily made by consumers   0.162
 Correct205 (61.6)28 (71.8)177 (60.2) 
 Incorrect128 (38.4)11 (28.2)117 (39.8) 
You can buy OTC medication without a prescription from a doctor   0.333
 Correct234 (70.3)30 (76.9)204 (69.4) 
 Incorrect99 (29.7)9 (23.1)90 (30.6) 
You can buy OTC medication only in a Pharmacy   0.900
 Correct114 (34.2)13 (33.3)101 (34.4) 
 Incorrect219 (65.8)26 (66.7)193 (65.6) 
You need to consult with healthcare provider before or when taking OTC medication during pregnancy   0.094
 Correct287 (86.2)37 (94.9)250 (85) 
 Incorrect46 (13.8)2 (5.1)44 (15) 
The most dangerous time during pregnancy for consuming OTC medication is the first trimester   0.408
 Correct193 (58.0)25 (64.1)168 (57.1) 
 Incorrect140 (42.0)14 (35.9)126 (42.9) 
While taking OTC medication there is possible risk that OTC drugs can affect the baby   0.002
 Correct211 (63.4)16 (41.0)195 (66.3) 
 Incorrect122 (36.6)23 (59.0)99 (33.7) 
OTC medication can be in the dosage form of oral medication   < 0.001
 Correct215 (64.6)36 (92.3)179 (60.9) 
 Incorrect118 (35.4)3 (7.7)115 (39.1) 
OTC medication can be in the dosage form of topical medication   0.057
 Correct143 (42.9)19 (48.7)124 (42.2) 
 Incorrect190 (57.1)20 (51.3)170 (57.8) 
Knowledge total score (Mean;SD)7.0 (3.1)7.8 (2.6)6.8 (3.2)0.070b
Overall knowledge in binary outcome   0.087
 Lower212 (63.7)20 (51.3)192 (65.3) 
 Higher121 (36.3)19 (48.7)102 (34.7) 
  1. ap value from chi square tests
  2. bp value from student’s t-test
  3. Bold p value means significant (i.e., p < 0.05)