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Table 5 Multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of neonatal mortality in emerging regions of Ethiopia, 2016

From: Individual-and community-level determinants of neonatal mortality in the emerging regions of Ethiopia: a multilevel mixed-effect analysis

Variable Null model Model 1 (individual level factors) Model 2 (Community level factors) Model 4 (model with individual and community level factors)
Sex of neonate
 Male   1   1
 Female   0.67 [0.47, 0.94]   0.67 [0.47, 0.94]a
Wealth index
 Rich   1   1
 Middle   1.11 [0.44, 2.80]   0.87 [0.33, 2.27]
 Poor   1.73 [0.91, 3.27]   1.22 [0.58, 2.55]
Birth order
 First birth   1   1
 2–4   0.55 [0.28, 1.07]   0.62 [0.32, 1.21]
  ≥ 5   0.73 [0.36, 1.48]   0.82 [0.40, 1.66]
Type of birth
 Single   1   1
 Twin   7.14 [3.84, 13.29]   6.85 [3.69, 12.70]a
Preceding birth interval
  < 2 year   1   1
 2–4 year   0.36 [0.23, 0.56]   0.38 [0.24, 0.58]a
  > 4 year   0.58 [0.32, 1.04]   0.64 [0.35, 1.17]
Women participating in making their own heath care decisions
 Yes   1   1
 No   1.24 [1.12, 1.79]   1.25 [1.14, 1.79]a
Media exposure     
 No   1   1
 Yes   0.73 [0.42, 1.25]   0.97 [0.55, 1.73]
Number of ANC visits
 No visit   1   1
 1–3   0.30 (0.14, 0.65)   0.34 (0.15, 0.74)a
  ≥ 4   0.44 (0.22, 0.88)   0.55 (0.26, 1.15)
Place of delivery
 Home   1   1
 Health facility   0.77 [0.51, 1.16]   0.81 [0.54, 1.23]
Maternal education
 No education   1.66 [1.04, 2.65]   1.79 [1.12, 2.88]a
 Primary   1.21 [0.53, 2.78]   1.50 [0.65, 3.46]
 Secondary and higher   1   1
Residence     
 Urban    1 1
 Rural    2.04 [0.91, 4.54] 1.82 [0.75, 4.38]
Distance to health facility
 Not a big problem    1 1
 Big problem    1.21 [0.83, 1.78] 1.16 [0.78, 1.72]
Community poverty
 Low    1 1
 High    1.04 [0.67, 1.62] 0.85 [0.52, 1.39]
Community media exposure
 No    1 1
 Yes    0.63 [0.41, 0.97] 0.64 [0.41, 0.98]a
 Random effect     
 Community level variance 0.51 0.41 0.37 0.32
 Log likelihood − 635.27 − 597.78 − 627.50 − 593.68
 Deviance 1270.54 1195.56 1255.0 1187.36
 ICC 13.5% 11.0% 10.0% 8.9%
 MOR 1.98 1.84 1.78 1.72
 PCV ref 19.6% 27.5% 37.3%
  1. aICC Intra-class Correlation Coefficient, MOR Median Odds Ratio, PCV Proportional Change in Variance