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Table 2 Baseline characteristics according to fetal growth in early pregnancy. (N = 69,617 births)

From: Accelerated fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics Accelerated fetal growtha
(n = 7091)
Appropriate fetal growthb
(n = 55,571)
Delayed fetal growthc
(n = 6955)
P- value
Maternal age older than 35 y 3117 (43.9) 25,108 (45.2) 3352 (48.2) < 0.0001
Short maternal height (< 155 cm) 143 (2.0) 1367 (2.4) 170 (2.4) 0.13
Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) 440 (6.5) 3658 (6.9) 487 (7.3) 0.28
Non- Nordic origin 1092 (17.7) 9043 (18.4) 1203 (18.9) 0.64
Primiparity 3409 (48.1) 31,269 (56.3) 4517 (64.9) < 0.0001
Smoking 177 (2.5) 1538 (2.5) 210 (3.0) 0.03
In vitro fertilization (IVF) 443 (6.2) 3649 (6.5) 342 (4.9) < 0.0001
Chronic hypertension 62 (0.9) 523 (0.9) 60 (0.9) 0.45
Pre-gestational diabetes mellitus 12 (0.2) 116 (0.2) 17 (0.2) 0.75
Male fetal gender 4988 (70.4) 28,179 (50.7) 2362 (33.9) < 0.0001
Difference in growth
mean (dispersion index)
5.14 (0.45) −0.63(−7.29) −6.56 (−0.34) < 0.0001
  1. aAccelerated fetal growth at second trimester scan was defined as BPD measurement at the 90th percentile, or more of the expected for gestational age
  2. bAppropriate fetal growth at second trimester scan was defined as BPD measurement between 10th – 90th percentile of the expected for gestational age
  3. cDelayed fetal growth at second trimester scan was defined as BPD measurement at the 10th percentile, or less of the expected for gestational age
  4. dDifference between observed and expected gestational age at second trimester scan