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Table 4 Multivariable logistic regression of socio-demographics and pregnancy-related variables associated with caesarean deliveries

From: Trends of caesarean section deliveries in Pakistan: secondary data analysis from Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990–2018

  PDHS 1990–91
(n = 4029)
PDHS 2006–07
(n = 5721)
PDHS 2012–13
(n = 7461)
PDHS 2017–18
(n = 8287)
AOR 95% CI p-value AOR 95% CI p-value AOR 95% CI p-value AOR 95% CI p-value
Socio-demographics
Mother’s age at birth (in years)
 Less than 18 1    1    
 18–20 1.26 0.85–1.85 0.250 1.10 0.84–1.44 0.511 1.12 0.90–1.41 0.315
 21–24 1.31 0.81–2.22 0.267 1.40 1.09–1.78 < 0.001 1.30 1.06–1.60 < 0.001
 More than 24 1.30 0.89–1.92 0.179 1.73 1.37–2.24 < 0.001 1.79 1.43–2.22 < 0.001
Children’s birth order
 1 5.99 0.89–40.18 0.650 0.90 0.46–1.77 0.758 1.17 0.67–2.04 0.590 0.13 0.07–0.22 < 0.001
 2–3 7.30 1.48–36.02 0.151 2.04 1.09–3.80 < 0.001 0.90 0.54–1.50 0.676 0.13 0.07–0.23 < 0.001
 4–5 8.10 1.54–37.04 0.104 1.63 1.00–2.66 < 0.001 0.70 0.46–1.06 0.090 0.11 0.06–0.20 < 0.001
 6 and above 1    1    1    1   
Mother’s education
 No education 1    1    1    1   
 Primary 1.91 0.59–6.15 0.279 1.28 0.86–1.91 0.219 1.04 0.80–1.35 0.788 0.86 0.68–1.08 0.182
 Middle
 Secondary 4.93 1.97–12.34 < 0.001 1.21 0.81–1.80 0.353 1.04 0.81–1.34 0.740 1.09 0.89–1.34 0.387
 Higher 8.60 2.00–36.92 < 0.001 0.99 0.56–1.73 0.985 1.12 0.84–1.48 0.440 1.35 1.07–1.69 < 0.001
Mother’s occupation
 Not working 1    1    1   
 Unskilled 1.50 0.63–3.57 0.360 0.72 0.44–1.15 0.169 0.68 0.13–3.54 0.642
 Skilled 0.89 0.58–1.36 0.583 1.06 0.80–1.42 0.671 1.09 0.74–1.62 0.659
 Professional/Technical/Managerial 1.05 0.44–2.51 0.912 1.04 0.70–1.54 0.858 0.78 0.43–1.41 0.407
Wealth index
 Poorest 1    1    1   
 Poorer 0.82 0.38–1.77 0.614 1.01 0.67–1.50 0.979 1.33 0.99–1.78 0.058
 Middle 1.72 0.87–3.41 0.122 1.06 0.72–1.57 0.770 1.66 1.24–2.23 < 0.001
 Richer 2.57 1.30–5.07 < 0.001 1.38 0.93–2.05 0.115 1.98 1.46–2.68 < 0.001
 Richest 3.25 1.57–6.70 < 0.001 1.66 1.08–2.54 < 0.001 2.20 1.59–3.05 < 0.001
Type of residence
 Rural 1    1    1    1   
 Urban 2.37 0.77–7.31 0.135 1.12 0.81–1.55 0.507 1.75 1.44–2.13 < 0.001 1.04 0.90–1.22 0.584
Region
 Baluchistan 1    1    1    1  
 Islamabad Capital Territory 0.38 0.23–0.64 < 0.001 0.39 0.28–0.52 < 0.001
 Punjab 0.30 0.07–1.38 0.122 0.69 0.49–0.96 < 0.001 1.95 1.48–2.57 < 0.001 0.88 0.73–1.07 0.209
 Sindh 0.37 0.16–0.84 < 0.001 0.39 0.25–0.61 < 0.001 1.44 1.08–1.93 < 0.001 0.27 0.21–0.34 < 0.001
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 0.32 0.11–0.98 < 0.001 0.39 0.18–0.82 < 0.001 0.66 0.47–0.91 < 0.001 0.30 0.22–0.43 < 0.001
 Gilgit Baltistan 0.47 0.30–0.73 < 0.001 0.70 0.54–0.89 0.004
 AJK 0.80 0.64–1.00 0.054
 FATA 0.18 0.11–0.28 < 0.001
Pregnancy-related variables
Pregnancy complication
 No 1    1   
 Yes 1.80 1.34–2.42 < 0.001 1.31 1.11–1.55 0.001
Number of antenatal care visits
 None 1    1    1    1   
 1–3 6.95 1.82–26.54 < 0.001 1.30 0.82–2.06 0.260 2.51 1.49–4.52 < 0.001 1.49 0.93–2.37 0.097
 4 and above 9.64 2.61–35.61 < 0.001 2.26 1.64–3.11 < 0.001 4.24 4.67–6.42 < 0.001 2.21 1.39–3.52 < 0.001
Place of delivery
 Public 1    1   
 Private 1.05 0.88–1.25 0.627 1.45 1.26–1.68 < 0.001
Size of the baby at birth
 Below average 1    1   
 Normal 0.84 0.61–1.14 0.259 1.08 0.80–1.45 0.794
Number of children
 1–2 1.22 0.30–4.93 0.785 1.00 0.72–1.62 0.930 0.70 0.44–1.13 0.148 0.08 1.44–1.67 < 0.001
 3–4 0.74 0.30–1.84 0.518 0.98 0.65–1.47 0.924 1.09 0.86–1.80 0.486 1.00 0.83–1.21 0.971
 5 and above 1    1    1    1   
Pregnancy ever terminated
 No 1   
 Yes 0.79 0.57–1.11 0.550
  1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain AOR after entering all the independent variables simultaneously that were significant at level 0.05 in binary analysis