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Table 3 Simple binary logistic regression of socio-demographics and pregnancy-related variables associated with caesarean deliveries

From: Trends of caesarean section deliveries in Pakistan: secondary data analysis from Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990–2018

  PDHS 1990–91
(n = 4029)
PDHS 2006–07
(n = 5721)
PDHS 2012–13
(n = 7461)
PDHS 2017–18
(n = 8287)
OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Socio-demographics
Mother’s age at birth (in years)
 Less than 18 1    1    1    1   
 18–20 1.07 0.62–1.84 0.822 1.80 1.30–2.50 < 0.001 1.66 1.31–2.10 < 0.001 1.77 1.46–2.14 < 0.001
 21–24 1.96 1.26–3.02 < 0.001 2.08 1.40–3.08 < 0.001 2.74 2.23–3.37 < 0.001 2.72 2.29–3.23 < 0.001
 More than 24 1.78 1.05–3.04 < 0.001 2.60 1.91–3.55 < 0.001 5.00 4.04–6.19 < 0.001 5.10 4.28–6.07 < 0.001
Children birth order
 1 5.38 2.94–9.83 < 0.001 0.46 0.30–0.71 < 0.001 5.06 3.95–6.48 < 0.001 5.00 3.97–6.29 < 0.001
 2–3 3.04 1.68–5.51 < 0.001 2.58 1.83–3.66 < 0.001 3.43 2.71–4.33 < 0.001 4.24 3.41–5.27 < 0.001
 4–5 2.68 1.44–4.98 < 0.001 1.82 1.31–2.54 < 0.001 1.56 1.19–2.04 < 0.001 2.80 2.18–3.60 < 0.001
 More than 6 1    1    1    1   
Mother’s education
 No education 1    1    1    1   
 Primary 3.78 2.18–6.56 < 0.001 2.85 2.15–3.77 < 0.001 2.66 2.15–3.29 < 0.001 2.23 1.85–2.69 < 0.001
 Middle 3.52 2.74–4.52 < 0.001
 Secondary 8.46 5.60–12.78 < 0.001 4.81 3.74–6.19 < 0.001 5.22 4.26–6.40 < 0.001 4.05 3.49–4.69 < 0.001
 Higher 14.19 6.94–29.01 < 0.001 8.31 6.23–11.09 < 0.001 7.86 6.51–9.49 < 0.001 7.51 6.45–8.76 < 0.001
Mother’s occupation
 Not working 1    1    1    1   
 Unskilled 0.47 0.07–3.43 0.457 0.55 0.27–1.14 < 0.001 0.76 0.60–0.96 < 0.001 0.75 0.33–1.67 0.479
 Skilled 0.69 0.37–1.29 0.241 0.44 0.03–0.59 < 0.001 0.36 0.25–0.51 < 0.001 0.79 0.65–0.97 < 0.001
 Professional/Technical/Managerial 3.81 1.47–9.84 < 0.001 2.92 1.81–4.69 < 0.001 2.15 1.53–3.02 < 0.001 2.72 2.10–3.53 < 0.001
Wealth index
 Poorest 1    1    1   
 Poorer 1.22 0.71–2.09 0.475 2.66 2.15–3.29 < 0.001 1.67 1.31–2.13 < 0.001
 Middle 3.02 1.89–4.84 < 0.001 3.52 2.74–4.52 < 0.001 3.51 2.79–4.41 < 0.001
 Richer 6.43 4.14–9.97 < 0.001 5.22 4.26–6.40 < 0.001 6.25 5.01–7.80 < 0.001
 Richest 13.14 8.60–20.08 < 0.001 7.86 6.51–9.49 < 0.001 10.30 8.29–12.80 < 0.001
Type of residence
 Rural 1    1    1    1   
 Urban 4.50 2.88–7.06 < 0.001 0.37 0.30–0.45 < 0.001 2.43 2.12–2.78 < 0.001 0.48 0.43–0.54 < 0.001
Region
 Baluchistan 1    1    1    1   
 Islamabad Capital Territory     0.06 0.04–0.10 < 0.001 0.31 0.23–0.40 < 0.001
 Punjab 0.15 0.05–0.41 < 0.001 0.62 0.49–0.78 < 0.001 0.71 0.56–0.89 < 0.001 0.82 0.71–0.96 < 0.001
 Sindh 0.73 0.49–1.11 0.140 0.36 0.26–0.49 < 0.001 0.66 0.52–0.83 < 0.001 0.25 0.20–0.30 < 0.001
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 0.43 0.23–0.71 0.001 0.18 0.10–0.30 < 0.001 0.20 0.15–0.27 < 0.001 0.14 0.10–0.18 < 0.001
 Gilgit Baltistan 0.16 0.11–0.23 < 0.001 1.03 0.84–1.27 0.761
 AJK 0.76 0.63–0.91 < 0.001
 FATA 0.09 0.06–0.13 < 0.001
Pregnancy-related variables
Pregnancy complication
 No 1    1   
 Yes 2.20 1.78–2.72 < 0.001 1.68 1.45–1.94 < 0.001
Number of antenatal care visits
 None 1    1    1    1   
 1–3 5.08 2.97–9.68 < 0.001 3.05 2.17–4.28 < 0.001 6.21 4.15–9.31 < 0.001 6.31 4.15–9.61 < 0.001
 4 and above 9.70 6.01–15.72 < 0.001 5.76 4.63–7.15 < 0.001 25.40 17.22–37.47 < 0.001 23.36 15.52–35.18 < 0.001
Place of delivery
 Public 1    1    1    1   
 Private 0.92 0.61–1.39 0.696 1.01 0.81–1.26 0.938 1.33 1.14–1.54 < 0.001 1.85 1.64–2.09 < 0.001
Size of the baby at birth
 Below average 1    1    1    1   
 Normal 1.08 0.38–3.07 0.888 0.81 0.63–0.99 < 0.001 1.29 0.95–1.75 0.103 1.10 1.26 0.180
Number of children
 1–2 0.34 0.21–0.53 < 0.001 0.21 0.15–0.27 < 0.001 0.24 0.20–0.29 < 0.001 0.27 0.23–0.32 < 0.001
 3–4 0.72 0.48–1.09 0.116 0.60 0.48–0.75 < 0.001 0.60 0.52–0.70 < 0.001 0.72 0.64–0.82 < 0.001
 5 and above 1    1    1    1   
Pregnancy ever terminated
 No 1    1    1   
 Yes 1.12 0.90–1.40 0.310 1.11 0.97–1.28 0.136 1.06 0.80–1.41 0.675