Skip to main content

Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression analysis for the association between institutional cesarean section and selected covariates stratified by place of delivery in survey waves 2006, 2011 and 2016

From: Trends and correlates of cesarean section rates over two decades in Nepal

  Public, OR (CI) 2006 Public, OR (CI) 2011 Public, OR (CI) 2016
Private, OR (CI) Private, OR (CI) Private, OR (CI)
Region (Ref: 5)
 Eastern 1.55 (0.32–7.53) 0.57 (0.14–2.37) 1.43 (0.54–3.82) 5.08 (1.06–24.34) * 2.05 (1.13–3.73) * 54.44 (5.67–522.4) **
 Central 1.64 (0.36–7.41 1.09 (0.43–2.76) 1.28 (0.54–3.01) 6.83 (1.42–32.81) * 1.67 (0.92–3.03) 52.22 (5.33–511.9) **
 Western 2.16 (0.43–10.77) 1.12 (0.40–3.14) 1.04 (0.45–2.43) 2.78 (0.55–13.92) 2.67 (1.51–4.72) ** 30.35 (3.11–296.0) **
 Mid-western 0.50 (0.10–2.58) 2.97 (1.17–7.49) * 0.84 (0.32–2.18) 2.86 (0.59–13.87) 1.00 (0.49–2.00) 3.04 (0.20–45.2)
Age at first birth (Ref: ≤ 19)
 20–29 1.74 (0.97–3.12) 2.13 (1.12–4.05) * 1.61 (0.90–2.88) 1.49 (0.78–2.83) 1.42 (0.99–2.05) 1.55 (0.84–2.89)
 30+ 4.11 (1.42–11.93) * 32.48 (2.70–391.1) ** 4.86 (0.82–28.91) 6.64 (1.28–34.36) * 4.48 (1.88–10.65) ** 11.96 (0.38–42.3) ***
Birth order (Ref: Second +)
 First 2.30 (1.03–5.13) * 1.34 (0.61–2.93) 0.70 (0.42–1.17) 1.65 (0.96–2.86) 1.17 (0.82–1.69) 1.27 (0.75–2.2)
Child size (Ref: Average)
 Large 2.78 (1.36–5.67) ** 2.53 (1.18–5.43) * 1.07 (0.57–1.99) 2.76 (1.28–5.97) ** 1.52 (1.03–2.22) * 2.06 (1.10–3.83) *
 Small 1.88 (0.74–4.77) 2.24 (0.70–7.15) 0.58 (0.23–1.46) 2.70 (1.16–6.27) * 1.52 (0.99–2.32) 1.17 (0.63–2.18)
ANC visit (Ref: 3 or less)
 4 and above 1.22 (0.56–2.67) 1.44 (0.65–3.20) 1.18 (0.63–2.19) 1.76 (0.59–5.29) 1.15 (0.63–2.09) 1.46 (0.80–2.67)
Occupation (Ref: Not working)
 Working 0.47 (0.24–0.91) * 0.47 (0.21–1.08) 0.87 (0.50–1.51) 0.73 (0.40–1.34) 0.93 (0.66–1.32) 1.58 (0.99–2.51)
Wealth index (Ref: Poorest)
 Poorer 0.41 (0.12–1.34) 0.70 (0.14–3.35) 0.22 (0.05–0.96) * 0.48 (0.10–2.27) 1.21 (0.59–2.48) 0.45 (0.13–1.58)
 Middle 0.32 (0.09–1.16) 1.06 (0.11–10.21) 0.92 (0.27–3.09) 1.68 (0.43–6.46) 1.28 (0.65–2.52) 0.94 (0.31–2.84)
 Richer 0.75 (0.28–1.99) 0.09 (0.02–0.36) ** 0.68 (0.21–2.20) 1.14 (0.29–4.49) 1.54 (0.77–3.08) 0.84 (0.31–2.23)
 Richest 1.03 (0.33–3.23) 1.63 (0.45–5.88) 1.00 (0.27–3.74) 0.97 (0.24–3.83) 3.91 (1.90–8.09) *** 2.82 (1.05–7.56) *
Education (Ref: No education)
 Primary or less 0.59 (0.29–1.17) 3.95 (0.63–24.68) 1.64 (0.66–4.08) 1.45 (0.52–4.03) 1.29 (0.62–2.67) 0.50 (0.26–0.94) *
 Secondary + 0.43 (0.26–0.73) ** 2.22 (0.32–15.35) 1.32 (0.49–3.54) 1.33 (0.52–3.40) 1.13 (0.59–2.17) 0.82 (0.43–1.56)
Residence (Ref: Rural)
 Urban 0.93 (0.49–1.74) 1.35 (0.67–2.72) 0.56 (0.34–0.92) * 0.43 (0.23–0.79)** 1.14 (0.77–1.68) 1.28 (0.77–2.14)
  1. Number of cases included in the multivariable model N = 5011 (10 women did not report on ANC visits)
  2. OR adjusted odds ratio (adjusted for all covariates under analysis for each survey round)
  3. CI 95% confidence interval
  4. * = P < 0.05, ** = P < 0.01, *** = P < 0.001