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Table 3 Echocardiographic parameters in normotensive women with singleton (n = 44) and twin (n = 22) pregnancies

From: Morphofunctional cardiac changes in singleton and twin pregnancies: a longitudinal cohort study

  2nd trimester 3rd trimester PP1 PP2
Singleton pregnancies (women tested) (n = 42) (n = 42) (n = 41) (n = 41)
Twin pregnancies (women tested) (n = 18) (n = 21) (n = 22) (n = 22)
LVDd, mm SP 46.0 (3.1) 46.2 (3.3) 47.0 (3.5) 45.4 (3.4)
TP 45.4 (2.5) 45.6 (4.1) 47.2 (2.9) 44.0 (3.1)
LV ejection fraction (LVEF), % SP 64.8 (4.3) 62.5 (4.1) 63.6 (4.4) 61.8 (4.0)
TP 65.7 (4.3) 63.1 (6.0) 65.3 (4.3) 62.6 (5.4)
Shortening fraction, % SP 35.5 (3.2) 33.6 (3.2) 34.6 (3.6) 33.1 (3.2)
TP 36.6 (3.4) 33.3 (4.6) † 35.3 (4.7) 33.4 (3.6)
LV mass (LVM), g SP 102.8 (19.0) 113.7 (23.6) 118.2 (26.1) 102.7 (23.9)
TP 96.4 (12.9) 115.8 (15.6) † 126.3 (19.4) *† 94.5 (13.8)
LVM/BSA (LVMI), g/m2 SP 63.6 (10.0) 68.8 (12.5) 73.1 (14.1) 64.6 (13.0)
TP 61.8 (7.6) 71.3 (8.4) † 80.9 (11.6) *† 62.6 (7.4)
LA diameter PLAX, mm SP 31.9 (3.6) 32.3 (3.8) 33.6 (3.9) 30.6 (3.8)
TP 31.4 (3.4) 33.7 (3.3) 34.3 (3.8) † 29.1 (3.8) †
Maximum LA volume, mL SP 38.6 (9.2) 40.2 (9.6) 45.9 (11.1) 36.5 (9.8)
TP 40.3 (9.2) 45.7 (12.9) 51.0 (15.4) † 32.2 (10.8)
Maximal LA volume/BSA (LAVI), mL/m2 SP 23.9 (5.2) 24.4 (5.7) 28.4 (6.1) 22.9 (5.3)
TP 25.8 (5.4) 28.0 (7.2) * 32.4 (8.9) *† 21.2 (6.6)
Inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter, mm SP 13.6 (3.5) 10.9 (3.0) 17.0 (4.0) 15.3 (3.5)
TP 11.2 (3.4) * 9.3 (3.4) 15.8 (4.9) † 13.0 (5.1) *
Stroke volume, mL SP 68.2 (8.0) 65.8 (10.0) 74.5 (8.6) 67.2 (8.5)
TP 67.0 (9.7) 75.7 (12.5) 74.0 (14.0) 61.5 (8.4) *
Cardiac output (CO), L/min SP 5.5 (0.8) 5.4 (0.9) 5.7 (0.9) 4.6 (0.7)
TP 5.2 (0.9) 5.6 (1.1) 4.9 (0.9) * 4.3 (0.9) †
CO/BSA (CI), L/min/m2 SP 3.4 (0.4) 3.3 (0.6) 3.5 (0.5) 2.9 (0.4)
TP 3.3 (0.6) 3.5 (0.8) 3.2 (0.6) * 2.8 (0.5) †
Systemic vascular resistance, dyn∙s/cm5 SP 1072 (143) 1157 (234) 1058 (195) 1441 (234)
TP 1065 (233) 1066 (268) 1222 (258) * 1529 (325) †
Mitral inflow parameters
 E, cm/s SP 74 (15) 71 (18) 87 (16) 69 (13)
TP 84 (18) * 79 (22) 92 (16) 67 (14) †
 A, cm/s SP 53 (11) 56 (11) 58 (12) 52 (12)
TP 53 (10) 60 (9) 54 (14) 48 (11)
 E/A SP 1.5 (0.4) 1.3 (0.4) 1.5 (0.4) 1.4 (0.4)
TP 1.6 (0.5) 1.3 (0.3) † 1.8 (0.6) 1.4 (0.3)
Pulmonary vein inflow parameters
 S/D SP 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.0 (0.3)
TP 1.0 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.0 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2)
TDI mitral annulus
 Average
 s ave., cm/s SP 11.3 (2.1) 11.5 (2.5) 10.6 (1.7) 10.1 (1.9)
TP 10.6 (1.9) 10.6 (1.6) 9.4 (1.2) *† 8.8 (1.0) *†
 e ave. (e’), cm/s SP 15.5 (2.2) 13.8 (2.1) 14.5 (2.1) 13.6 (2.0)
TP 14.8 (2.3) 13.3 (1.7) 13.7 (2.0) 14.2 (1.8)
 a ave., cm/s SP 9.9 (1.8) 10.5 (2.0) 10.8 (2.3) 9.3 (2.0)
TP 10.3 (2.6) 11.0 (1.5) 9.4 (2.2) * 8.5 (1.8) †
 E/e’ average (E/e’) SP 4.9 (1.1) 5.3 (1.6) 6.1 (1.2) 5.1 (1.0)
TP 5.9 (1.6) * 6.0 (1.6) 6.9 (1.5) * 4.8 (0.9)
  1. Data are presented as means (SD); *, P < 0.05 vs. the value of singleton pregnancy. , P < 0.05 vs. value of the same group determined in the 2nd trimester
  2. A Late diastolic mitral flow velocity, a’ ave. Average of late diastolic septal and lateral mitral annular velocity, BSA Body surface area, D Anterograde diastolic pulmonary venous flow velocity, E Early diastolic mitral flow velocity, e’ ave. Average of early diastolic septal and lateral mitral annular velocity, LA Left atrium, LV Left ventricle, LVDd LV end-diastolic dimension, PLAX From parasternal long-axis view, s’ ave. Average of systolic septal and lateral mitral annular velocity, S Systolic pulmonary venous flow velocity, SP Singleton pregnancies, TDI Tissue Doppler imaging, TP Twin pregnancies