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Table 5 Literature on Unhealthy Maternal Behaviors and its Influence on Fetal and Child Development

From: Maternal health behaviors during pregnancy in rural Northwestern China

Category Unhealthy maternal behaviors Influence on child development Author
Exposures to unhealthy substances Exposure to tobacco (including second-hand smoke) Increases child’s risk for asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) He [26]
Román [55]
Hernández-Martínez [7]
Rodriguez [62]
Alcohol consumption Affects child brain development, damages selective brain structures, and increases the risk of growth retardation; Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy were also at elevated risk of experiencing placental abruption Aliyu [8]
Jones [63]
Isaksen [64]
Nilsson [65]
Exposure to toxins, such as pesticides Negatively impacts birth weight and brain development Bouchard [41]
Currie [66]
Exposure to radiation Associated with prenatal death, intrauterine growth restriction, smaller head size, intellectual disability, organ malformation, and childhood cancer Williams [42]
Inadequate maternal nutrition Inadequate folic acid consumption in early pregnancy Increases risk for neural tube defects McStay [67]
Yang [22]
Out of standard range for pre-pregnancy maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) and pregnancy weight gain Associated with higher risks of low birth weight and preterm birth and increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological disorders later in life Pan [25]
Rivera [62]
Diouf [68]
Stang [69]
Low dietary diversity Increased risk of low birth weight and preterm birth Yang [22]
Zerfu [9]
Inadequate antenatal care Less than the recommended number of antenatal visits Increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight Vogel [24]
Later than recommended first antenatal visit Increased risk of low birth weight and infant mortality Khanal [70]