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Table 4 Logistic regression between unhealthy maternal behaviors and demographic characteristics

From: Maternal health behaviors during pregnancy in rural Northwestern China

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
VARIABLES Low dietary diversity (1 = dietary diversity scores <= 6) Weight gain out of standard range Exposure to tobacco (including second-hand smoke) BMI out of standard range No folic acid consumption
(1 = below standard range) (1 = above standard range) (1 = exposure to tobacco) (1 = below standard range) (1 = above standard range) (1 = no folic acid consumption)
  OR a P Value OR P Value OR P Value OR P Value OR P Value OR P Value OR P Value
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Age > mean 0.80 0.209 1.17 0.472 0.90 0.598 1.01 0.943 1.01 0.950 1.71** 0.044 0.90 0.649
(0.57–1.13)   (0.76–1.79)   (0.62–1.32)   (0.72–1.42)   (0.64–1.61)   (1.02–2.87)   (0.58–1.40)  
Completed high school (or above) 0.68** 0.015 0.63** 0.031 0.84 0.322 1.36** 0.047 0.82 0.335 0.71 0.181 0.70 0.105
(0.50–0.93)   (0.42–0.96)   (0.59–1.19)   (1.00–1.86)   (0.55–1.23)   (0.43–1.17)   (0.46–1.08)  
Currently working as migrant 0.98 0.872 1.17 0.436 1.06 0.718 0.68** 0.013 1.28 0.213 1.58* 0.050 0.76 0.204
(0.72–1.33)   (0.79–1.73)   (0.76–1.49)   (0.50–0.92)   (0.87–1.89)   (1.00–2.50)   (0.50–1.16)  
Ever worked as migrant 1.14 0.496 0.90 0.668 0.88 0.546 0.88 0.515 1.15 0.605 0.79 0.428 0.82 0.426
(0.78–1.68)   (0.54–1.48)   (0.57–1.34)   (0.60–1.29)   (0.68–1.94)   (0.45–1.41)   (0.51–1.33)  
First pregnancy 1.13 0.413 1.07 0.724 1.32* 0.090 1.18 0.263 1.04 0.815 1.24 0.353 0.85 0.417
(0.84–1.51)   (0.74–1.54)   (0.96–1.82)   (0.89–1.56)   (0.73–1.50)   (0.79–1.95)   (0.58–1.25)  
Husband’s age > mean 1.33 0.109 0.56** 0.011 1.10 0.643 0.87 0.434 0.56** 0.014 0.88 0.644 1.08 0.747
(0.94–1.89)   (0.36–0.88)   (0.74–1.61)   (0.62–1.23)   (0.35–0.89)   (0.52–1.50)   (0.69–1.68)  
Husband completed high school (or above) 0.81 0.149 1.06 0.752 1.18 0.325 1.01 0.967 1.18 0.397 0.87 0.551 0.89 0.564
(0.60–1.08)   (0.72–1.57)   (0.85–1.63)   (0.75–1.35)   (0.81–1.71)   (0.54–1.38)   (0.60–1.32)  
Lived with husband for ≥3 months 1.20 0.198 0.80 0.230 0.75* 0.075 0.93 0.599 1.15 0.465 1.01 0.981 1.35 0.109
(0.91–1.60)   (0.56–1.15)   (0.55–1.03)   (0.70–1.23)   (0.79–1.66)   (0.66–1.53)   (0.94–1.94)  
Lived with mother / mother-in-law ≥3 months 1.10 0.512 0.86 0.401 0.78 0.122 0.94 0.642 1.09 0.638 0.90 0.624 0.93 0.678
(0.83–1.46)   (0.60–1.23)   (0.57–1.07)   (0.71–1.23)   (0.75–1.59)   (0.60–1.37)   (0.65–1.32)  
Asset index (PCA score) 0.82*** < 0.001 1.03 0.581 1.02 0.651 1.01 0.797 0.98 0.770 1.08 0.266 0.90* 0.055
  (0.75–0.90)   (0.92–1.15)   (0.93–1.12)   (0.93–1.10)   (0.88–1.10)   (0.94–1.23)   (0.81–1.00)  
County fixed effect Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Cohort fixed effect Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Observations 1088 691 836 1088 960 893 1088
  1. Source: Authors’ survey
  2. aAbbreviation: CI 95% Confidence interval, reported in parentheses. Odds Ratio are showed in the table
  3. * significant at 5%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1%
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