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Table 1 Characteristics of Pregnant Women by Diabetes Risk Status:BRFSS 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017

From: Diabetes risk status and physical activity in pregnancy: U.S. BRFSS 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017

  Total ND HRD DM χ2 Test
  N (Weighted%) P
Total N = 9597 9036 (94.3) 457 (4.8) 104 (0.9)  
Age      < 0.0001
 18–24 2113 (28.8) 2033 (29.7) 53 (11.6) 27 (31.7)  
 25–29 2713 (27.2) 2592 (27.3) 96 (25.5) 25 (23.1)  
 30–34 2873 (27.9) 2688 (27.5) 162 (37.0) 23 (22.5)  
 35–39 1485 (12.4) 1351 (12.0) 115 (19.8) 19 (14.1)  
 40–44 413 (3.7) 372 (3.5) 31 (6.1) 10 (8.6)  
Race/Ethnicity      0.1571
White 6203 (51.7) 5882 (52.0) 269 (46.1) 52 (54.8)  
 African American 825 (12.9) 779 (13.1) 34 (8.2) 12 (10.8)  
 Native American/Alaskan 242 (1.3) 224 (1.3) 14 (0.9) 4 (0.6)  
 Asian 342 (5.9) 317 (5.7) 21 (8.8) 4 (8.6)  
 Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander 88 (0.3) 78 (0.2) 7 (0.8) 3 (0.5)  
 Hispanic 1584 (26.0) 1463 (25.6) 96 (33.0) 25 (21.2)  
 Other 313 (1.9) 293 (1.9) 16 (2.1) 4 (3.4)  
Education Level      0.1948
 Did not complete HS 777 (16.2) 710 (15.8) 56 (22.9) 11 (15.4)  
 Completed HS 2176 (24.2) 2030 (24.1) 113 (26.1) 33 (27.9)  
 Some college/technical school 2553(28.9) 2403 (29.2) 122 (24.8) 28 (22.7)  
 Graduated college/technical school 4091 (30.7) 3893 (30.9) 166 (26.1) 32 (34.0)  
Number of Children in Household      0.0024
 None 2981 (33.1) 2862 (33.8) 87 (19.8) 32 (38.5)  
 1–3 children 5979 (60.2) 5594 (59.7) 324 (72.0) 61 (51.4)  
 4 or more 637 (6.6) 580 (6.5) 46 (8.2) 11 (10.1)  
Alcohol Consumption (Based on the past 30 days)      < 0.0001
 None 8606 (88.8) 8091 (88.6) 429 (93.5) 86 (78.4)  
 Moderate 883 (9.2) 848 (10.0) 23 (5.2) 12 (14.8)  
 Heavy 108 (1.1) 97 (1.4) 5 (1.3) 6 (6.8)  
Smoking Status      0.1091
 Never smoker 6758 (70.3) 6398 (71.7) 292 (64.9) 68 (68.0)  
 Former smoker 2012 (21.0) 1864 (19.6) 126 (27.7) 22 (20.1)  
 Current smoker 827 (8.7) 774 (7.3) 39 (7.4) 14 (11.9)  
  1. BRFSS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; ND no diabetes; HRD high-risk for diabetes due to self-reported gestational diabetes or prediabetes; DM overt diabetes; HS high school; level of significance set to P ≤ 0.05