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Table 3 Individual-level numerator validation in exit survey report of injectable antibiotics coverage, EN-BIRTH study (n = 901)

From: Antibiotic use for inpatient newborn care with suspected infection: EN-BIRTH multi-country validation study

  Bangladesh Nepal Tanzania All sites pooled (Random Effects) % and 95 CI
Azimpur Tertiary Kushtia District Pokhara Regional Temeke Regional Muhimbili National
5.1 Neonatal Infection - Antibiotic/Injection - Survey reported
 Observer coverage % 99.0 (93.4, 99.9) 96.3 (93.4, 97.9) 92.6 (89.3, 95.0) 95.6 (91.8, 97.7) 100.0 (92.5, 100.0) 96.7 (94.0, 98.6)
 Survey reported coverage % 82.5 (73.9, 88.7) 58.1 (52.5, 63.6) 46.8 (41.4, 52.4) 91.1 (85.2, 94.8) 88.6 (72.9, 95.7) 74.7 (55.3, 90.1)
 "Don’t know” responses % 9.7 (5.3, 17.2) 35.2 (30.0, 40.8) 25.0 (20.5, 30.1) 6.8 (3.7, 12.3) 11.4 (4.3, 27.1) 16.9 (7.4, 29.2)
 Sensitivity % (95% CI) 57.8 (51.8, 63.6) 47.8 (41.9, 53.7) 75.9 (55.6, 91.6)
 Specificity % (95% CI) 54.5 (23.4, 83.3) 62.5 (40.6, 81.2)
 Percent agreement (TP+TN)/n % 84.2 (75.6, 90.7) 57.7 (51.8, 63.4) 48.9 (43.2, 54.6) 90.8 (84.9, 95.0) 88.6 (73.3, 96.8) 75.3 (56.4, 90.2)
5.2 Neonatal Infection - Antibiotic name - Survey reported
 Observer coverage % 99.0 (93.4, 99.9) 96.3 (93.4, 97.9) 92.6 (89.3, 95.0) 95.6 (91.8, 97.7) 100.0 (92.5, 100.0) 96.7 (94.0, 98.6)
 Survey reported coverage % 4.9 (2.0, 11.2) 25.2 (20.6, 30.5) 3.2 (1.7, 5.8) 21.2 (15.3, 28.7) 14.3 (6.0, 30.4) 12.3 (3.5, 25.1)
 "Don’t know” responses % 9.7 (5.3, 17.2) 35.2 (30.0, 40.8) 25.0 (20.5, 30.1) 6.8 (3.7, 12.3) 11.4 (4.3, 27.1) 16.9 (7.4, 29.2)
 Sensitivity % (95% CI) 26.2 (21.2, 31.8) 3.5 (1.7, 6.3) 12.7 (3.7, 25.6)
 Specificity % (95% CI) 90.9 (58.7, 99.8) 100.0 (85.8, 100.0)
 Percent agreement (TP+TN)/n % 5.9 (2.2, 12.5) 28.7 (23.6, 34.2) 10.9 (7.6, 14.8) 23.9 (17.2, 31.8) 14.3 (4.8, 30.3) 16.1 (8.0, 26.2)
  1. †‡ Validity statistics suppressed where < 10 count in either column of two-by-two table