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Table 4 Individual-level validation in exit survey of crying at birth indicator, EN-BIRTH study (n = 22,752 births)

From: Neonatal resuscitation: EN-BIRTH multi-country validation study

  Bangladesh Bangladesh Nepal Tanzania Tanzania All sites
Azimpur Tertiary Kushtia District Pokhara Regional Temeke Regional Muhimbili National Pooled Random effects
Cry at birth - Survey reported – live births + fresh stillbirths
 Observer prevalence % 86.7 (85.3,87.9) 75.7 (73.8,77.4) 77.4 (76.4,78.3) 72.0 (70.9,73) 72.6 (71.1,74.1) 77.1 (72.0,81.8)
 Survey reported prevalence % 94.4 (93.4,95.2) 94.3 (93.3,95.2) 95.8 (95.3,96.3) 93.0 (92.3,93.6) 90.5 (89.3,91.6) 93.7 (91.9,95.3)
 "Don’t know” responses % 0.8 (0.5,1.2) 1.2 (0.8,1.7) 1.3 (1.0,1.6) 0.8 (0.6,1.0) 2.6 (2.0,3.3) 1.3 (0.8,1.8)
 Sensitivity % (95% CI) 96.0 (95.1,96.7) 98.5 (97.8,99.0) 97.3 (96.8,97.7) 97.7 (97.2,98.1) 95.4 (94.3,96.3) 97.1 (96.1,97.9)
 Specificity % (95% CI) 15.7 (12.2,19.8) 15.2 (12.3,18.5) 8.7 (7.3,10.2) 18.1 (16.2,20.2) 21.4 (18.3,24.8) 15.6 (10.8,21.0)
 Percent agreement (TN + TP/n) % 85.3 78.4 77.0 76.6 76.3 78.8 (75.6,81.9)
  1. Full denominator details presented in Additional file 14