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Table 1 Baseline data for group with stillbirths (78 women, 79 babies) and the group with live births (n = 28,584)

From: Could a multidisciplinary regional audit identify avoidable factors and delays that contribute to stillbirths? A retrospective cohort study

  Stillbirths
n = 78
mean (SD) or n (%)
Live births
n = 28,584
mean (SD) or n (%)
p valuea/
Relative risk (95% CI)
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years) 32.2 (5.1) 32.4 (5.2) 0.73
 BMIb 25.5 (4.4) 24.4 (4.4) 0.03
 Smokersc 4 (5) 849 (3) 1.68 (0.65–4.39)
 History of psychiatric comorbidity 9 (11.3) 3579 (13) 0.91 (0.49–1.68)
 In vitro fertilization 4 (5) 1827 (6.5) 0.78 (0.29–2.02)
 Nullipara 20 (25.6) 12,257 (43.5) 0.58 (0.39–0.85)
 Duplex 5 (6.4) 877 (3.07) 2.06 (0.88–4.83)
 At least one previous miscarriage 26 (33.3) 6858 (23.9) 1.42 (1.05–1.94)
 Complications of pregnancyd 9 (11.5) 1678 (6.5) 1.75 (0.94–3.24)
Socio-economic situation
 Living with the father of the child 69 (87.3) 25,927 (93.7) 0.84 (0.75–0.94)
 Single mother 4 (5) 539 (1.95) 2.59 (0.99–6.77)
 Education: more than 3 years postsecondary 29 (39.7) 13,284 (47.5) 0.77 (0.57–1.03)
 Working fulltime 38 (48.7) 16,902 (64.1) 0.58 (0.44–0.75)
Country of birth
 Sweden 33 (42.3) 18,807 (66.8) 0.58 (0.45–0.75)
 Asia 13 (20.5) 3973 (14.1) 1.16 (0.74–1.80)
 Africa 15 (19.2) 1771 (6.3) 2.43 (1.53–3.87)
Onset of labour
 Spontaneous 17 (21.5) 19,560 (68.4) < 0.01
 Induced 53 (67.1) 5337 (18.7)
 Caesarean (ES + AS) 9 (11.4) 3684 (12.9)
Method of delivery
 Spontaneous vaginal 67 (84.8) 20,908 (73.4) 0.34
 Vacuum 2 (3) 1586 (5.6)
 Caesarean (ES + AS) 10 (12.6) 6002 (21)
Infant characteristics
 Gestational age (days) 231 (43.5) 277 (13.6) < 0.01
 22–32 weeks of gestation 33 (41.8) 308 (1.8) 39.4 (29.87–52.08)
 Term pregnancies 27 (34.2) 25,230 (88.3) 0.38 (0.28–0.51)
 Birth weight (g) 1953 (1241) 3480 (584.1) < 0.01
 Length (cm) 42 (10.1) 50 (2.7) < 0.01
 Female gender 41 (51.8) 14,352 (49.4) 1.04 (0.85–1.28)
 Malformations 6 (7.6) 1041 (3.64) 2.05 (0.95–4.46)
 Small for gestational age 32 (40.5) 1144 (3.9) 10.3 (7.88–13.46)
  1. ap value significant if < 0.05; the differences between the groups are presented as relative risk with a 95% Confidence interval
  2. bBMI = Body Mass Index = weight in kg/height x height in m2, calculated at the beginning of pregnancy
  3. cSmokers at the beginning of pregnancy
  4. dGestational diabetes, preeclampsia, hypertension, or cholestasis of pregnancy; the continuous variables are presented as mean and SD, and the categorical variables are presented as numbers (percentages of total)
  5. ES elective caesarean section, AS acute caesarean section