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Table 3 Factors associated with postpartum depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms

From: Psychosocial factors associated with postpartum psychological distress during the Covid-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

EPDS (cut-off score ≥ 11) OR 95% CI p-value
Pain level during childbirth 2.254 1.354 3.754 0.002
Perceived support by healthcare staff during childbirth 0.460 0.289 0.730 0.001
RQ2 (vs. RQ1) 2.450 1.128 5.323 0.024
RQ3 (vs. RQ1) 3.680 0.728 18.607 0.115
RQ4 (vs. RQ1) 2.372 0.837 6.725 0.104
IES-R (cut-off score ≥ 24) OR 95% CI p-value
Distress related to the absence of partner 1.459 0.988 2.155 0.057
Quiet on the ward related to the absence of visitors 0.525 0.308 0.896 0.018
Perceived support by healthcare staff during childbirth 0.589 0.379 0.915 0.019
Time between childbirth and questionnaire completion 1.617 0.893 2.926 0.113
Pain level during childbirth 1.983 0.965 4.076 0.062
Fear of contracting Covid-19 1.484 0.989 2.225 0.056
First pregnancy 2.042 0.959 4.347 0.064
RQ2 (vs. RQ1) 1.273 0.556 2.917 0.568
RQ3 (vs. RQ1) 1.334 0.256 6.944 0.732
RQ4 (vs. RQ1) 3.651 1.188 11.219 0.024
  1. IES-R denotes Impact of Event Scale-Revised, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, RQ Relationship Questionnaire, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval.