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Table 2 Clinical data of the cohort, overall and by presence of symptoms

From: Psychosocial factors associated with postpartum psychological distress during the Covid-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

  Overall IES-R < 24 IES-R ≥ 24 p-value EPDS < 11 EPDS ≥ 11 p-value
N = 163 n = 93 n = 70   n = 91 n = 72  
First pregnancy (%) 74 (45.4) 37 (39.8) 37 (52.9) 0.134 36 (39.6) 38 (52.8) 0.127
Type of birth (%)     0.577    0.353
 Vaginal 78 (47.9) 45 (48.4) 33 (47.1)   43 (47.3) 35 (48.6)  
 Planned caesarean section 43 (26.4) 27 (29.0) 16 (22.9)   26 (28.6) 17 (23.6)  
 Urgent caesarean section 32 (19.6) 17 (18.3) 15 (21.4)   19 (20.9) 13 (18.1)  
 Forceps/vacuum 10 (6.1) 4 (4.3) 6 (8.6)   3 (3.3) 7 (9.7)  
Perceived support by healthcare staff during childbirth (median [IQR]) 9 [7, 10] 10 [8, 10] 8 [6, 10] 0.002 10 [8, 10] 8 [6, 10] 0.002
Pain level during childbirth (median [IQR]) 8 [2, 9] 7 [1, 9] 8 [5, 10] 0.156 7 [0.5, 9] 8 [5, 10] 0.036
Breastfeeding (%) 144 (88.3) 82 (88.2) 62 (88.6) 1.000 81 (89.0) 63 (87.5) 0.958
Confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19 (%) 5 (3.1) 3 (3.2) 2 (2.9) 1.000 1 (1.1) 4 (5.6) 0.237
Contact with Covid positive people (%) 8 (4.9) 7 (7.5) 1 (1.4) 0.156 5 (5.5) 3 (4.2) 0.980
Relatives/loved ones with a confirmed Covid-19 diagnosis (%) 21 (12.9) 13 (14.0) 8 (11.4) 0.807 11 (12.1) 10 (13.9) 0.916
Perceived safety during hospitalization (median [IQR]) 8 [6;9] 8 [7, 9] 7.5 [6, 9] 0.385 8 [7, 9] 8 [6, 9] 0.340
Discomfort due to absence of partner 10 [8, 10] 10 [8, 10] 10 [9, 10] 0.009 10 [8, 10] 10 [8,75, 10] 0.315
Quiet on the ward related to the absence of visitors 7 [5, 8.5] 7 [6, 9] 6 [4, 8] 0.005 7 [5,9] 7 [5,8] 0.42
Time between childbirth and questionnaire completion ≤15 days (%) 25 (15.3) 15 (16.1) 10 (14.3) 0.917 15 (16.5) 10 (13.9) 0.812
Attachment style (%)     0.083    0.044
 RQ1 65 (41.1) 42 (45.7) 23 (34.8)   44 (50.6) 21 (29.6)  
 RQ2 60 (38.0) 37 (40.2) 23 (34.8)   30 (34.5) 30 (42.3)  
 RQ3 8 (5.1) 4 (4.3) 4 (6.1)   3 (3.4) 5 (7.0)  
 RQ4 25 (15.8) 9 (9.8) 16 (24.2)   10 (11.5) 15 (21.1)  
  1. IES-R denotes Impact of Event Scale-Revised, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, RQ Relationship Questionnaire, IQR Interquartile range