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Table 4 The results from the logistic regression models estimating the association between MFA and smoking at any time during pregnancy and the interaction effects MFAS × Education [low, middle, high] and MFAS × PPD on smoking at any time during pregnancy

From: The association of maternal-fetal attachment with smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy in The FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study

  Smoking at any time during pregnancy Smoking at any time during pregnancy Smoking at any time during pregnancy
  β S.E p adj. p aOR 95% CI β S.E p adj. p aOR 95% CI β S.E p adj. p aOR 95% CI
Intercept -0.61 0.70 0.384   0.55 0.14-2.14 -0.73 0.91 0.424   0.48 0.08-2.88 -1.18 0.82 0.150   0.31 0.06-1.53
MFAS 24 gwks 0.00 0.01 0.937 1.000 1.00 0.99-1.01 0.00 0.01 0.832   1.00 0.99-1.02 0.01 0.01 0.364   1.01 0.99-1.02
Education
  Low Ref.       Ref       Ref.      
  Middle -1.23 0.15 <0.001**   0.29 0.22-0.39 -1.23 0.15 <0.001**   0.29 0.22-0.39 1.36 1.16 0.242   3.89 0.40-37.84
  High -1.76 0.17 <0.001**   0.17 0.12-0.24 -1.76 0.17 <0.001**   0.17 0.12-0.24 -2.29 1.38 0.099   0.10 0.01-1.56
EPDS 0.05 0.02 0.004**   1.05 1.02-1.09 0.07 0.10 0.463   1.07 0.89-1.30 0.05 0.02 0.004**   1.05 1.02-1.09
SCL-90 Anxiety 0.00 0.02 0.854   1.00 0.97-1.03 0.00 0.02 0.860   1.00 0.97-1.03 0.00 0.02 0.854   1.00 0.97-1.03
MFAS × EPDS        0.00 0.00 0.834 1.000 1.00 1.00-1.00       
MFAS × Education low              Ref.      
MFAS × Education middle              -0.03 0.01 0.026* 0.137 0.97 0.95-0.996
 MFAS × Education high              0.01 0.02 0.698 1.000 1.01 0.98-1.04
Intercept -0.83 0.72 0.251   0.44 0.11-1.79 -0.96 0.96 0.314   0.38 0.06-2.50 -1.25 0.85 0.138   0.29 0.05-1.50
MFAS 34 gwks 0.00 0.01 0.595 1.000 1.00 0.99-1.02 0.01 0.01 0.610   1.01 0.99-1.02 0.01 0.01 0.312   1.01 0.99-1.02
 Education
  Low Ref.       Ref.       Ref.      
  Middle -1.26 0.15 <0.001**   0.28 0.21-0.38 -1.27 0.15 <0.001**   0.28 0.21-0.38 1.22 1.29 0.345   3.38 0.27-42.51
  High -1.76 0.17 <0.001**   0.17 0.12-0.24 -1.76 0.17 <0.001**   0.17 0.12-0.24 -2.70 1.54 0.080   0.07 0.00-1.38
 EPDS 0.05 0.02 0.002**   1.06 1.02-1.09 0.08 0.11 0.476   1.08 0.87-1.34 0.05 0.02 0.002**   1.06 1.02-1.09
 SCL-90 Anxiety -0.02 0.02 0.191   0.98 0.94-1.01 -0.02 0.02 0.192   0.98 0.95-1.01 -0.02 0.02 0.209   0.98 0.95-1.01
 MFAS × EPDS        0.00 0.00 0.832 1.000 1.00 1.00-1.00       
 MFAS × Education low              Ref.      
 MFAS × Education middle              -0.03 0.01 0.054 0.284 0.97 0.95.1.00
 MFAS ×Education high              0.01 0.02 0.538 1.000 1.01 0.98-1.04
  1. The estimates are based on the multiple imputed data. At 24th gestational weeks, N = 2858. At 34th gestational weeks, N = 2858
  2. The binary logistic regression models are controlled for maternal age, education, single parenthood, parity and concurrent depressive and anxiety symptoms
  3. S.E Standard error, adj. pP value adjusted for multiple comparisons, aOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, MFAS Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale, EPDS Edinburgh (Pre) Postnatal Depression Scale, SCL-90 Anxiety Symptom Checklist -90 Anxiety Subscale
  4. * p-value <.05, **p-value <.01