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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the pregnant non-smokers and smokers, and those who quit smoking and those who continued

From: The association of maternal-fetal attachment with smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy in The FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study

  Non-smokers Smokers Between-groups difference Quit smoking Continued smoking Between-groups difference
N = 3086 N = 612 N = 354 N = 255
n/N (%) n/N (%) df χ2p n/N (%) n/N (%) df χ2 p
Primiparous 1432/3086 (46.4%) 353/612 (57.7%) 1 <0.001** 231/354 (65.3%) 112/255 (47.1%) 1 <0.001**
Single parent 80/3080 (2.6%) 68/605 (11.2%) 1 <0.001** 17/353 (4.8%) 51/249 (20.5%) 1 <0.001**
Education    2 <0.001**    2 <0.001**
 Low 828/2582 (32.1%) 325/462 (70.3%)    190/298 (63.8%) 133/161 (82.6%)   
 Middle 803/2582 (31.1%) 81/462 (17.5%)    62/298 (20.8%) 19/161 (11.8%)   
 High 951/2582 (36.8%) 56/462 (12.1%)    46/298 (15.4%) 9/161 (5.6%)   
Income    3 <0.001**    3 0.015*
 <1000€ 544/2577 (21.1%) 133/460 (28.9%)    72/297 (24.2%) 59/160 (36.9%)   
 1001-1500€ 409/2577 (15.9%) 112/460 (24.3%)    71/297 (23.9%) 41/160 (25.9%)   
 1501-2000€ 870/2577 (33.8%) 140/460 (30.4%)    101/297 (34.0%) 39/160 (24.4%)   
 >2000€ 754/2577 (29.3%) 75/460 (16.3%)    53/297 (17.8%) 21/160 (13.1%)   
Self-reported prior psychiatric disorder (any) 419/2580 (16.2%) 126/460 (27.4%) 1 <0.001** 74/297 (24.9%) 50/160 (31.3%) 1 0.146
Self-reported prior depression 291/2580 (11.3%) 93/460 (20.2%) 1 <0.001** 51/297 (17.2%) 40/160 (25.0%) 1 0.046*
Self-reported prior anxiety disorder 137/2580 (5.3%) 38/460 (8.3%) 1 0.012* 23/297 (7.7%) 14/160 (8.8%) 1 0.707
  1. The descriptive sample statistics are based on the original data, not the imputed dataset
  2. N = information available or relevant total N, n = a number of pregnant women with an affirmative response
  3. * p-value <.05, **p-value <.01