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Table 4 Estimated size of the effect of abnormal placental perfusion on the risk of male hypospadias (%)a

From: Association of abnormal placental perfusion with the risk of male hypospadias: a hospital-based retrospective cohort study

No. of population Direct factor (causal chainb) Total effect The effect of abnormal placental perfusion
Coef. Standard Error P value Coef. Standard Error P value Size of the total effect (%)
Infants (16051), any PE (874), APP (1861), anomalies (33) Any PE (1) 1.30 0.49 .007 0.15 0.06 .009 11.54
APP (2) 1.06 0.36 .003 0.95 0.34 .006 89.62
Total (3) 2.36 1.10 46.61
Infants (15903), mild PE (726), APP (1792), anomalies (29) Mild PE (1) 0.36 0.60 .54 0.04 0.05 .37 11.11
APP (2) 0.50 0.56 .38 0.49 0.55 .37 98.00
Total (3) 0.86 0.53 61.63
Infants (15325), severe PE (148), APP (1730), anomalies (31) Severe PE (1) 2.68 0.60 <.001 0.30 0.16 .07 11.19
APP (2) 1.01 0.35 .004 0.74 0.31 .02 73.27
Total (3) 3.69 1.04 28.18
  1. PE Preeclampsia, APP Abnormal placental perfusion
  2. aAdjusted for maternal age at delivery (< 25, 25–34, or ≥ 35), residence (Shanghai or other provinces), parity (nulliparous or multiparous), gestational diabetes mellitus (yes or no), assisted conception (yes or no) and gender (male or female). bHypothetical causal chain: causal chain 1: PE was set as direct factor, and APP as indirect factor; causal chain 2: APP as direct factor and PE as indirect factor; causal chain 3: the weight of the coefficient of the effect of APP in chains 1 and 2 was combined when both of the causal chains (1 and 2) work (p value for the coeefficient <0.05)