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Table 3 Variant of abnormal placental perfusion and odds ratio of male hypospadias

From: Association of abnormal placental perfusion with the risk of male hypospadias: a hospital-based retrospective cohort study

Variant of abnormal placental perfusion Male hypospadias
No. of infants No. of cases Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
Right uterine artery
 PI Normal (≤P95) 15,244 28 1.00
High (>P95) 835 5 2.60 (0.97–6.98)
 RI Normal (≤P95) 15,348 29 1.00
High (>P95) 731 4 2.34 (0.80–6.85)
 EDN No 15,942 32 1.00
Yes 144 1 2.27 (0.29–17.65)
Left uterine artery
 PI Normal (≤P95) 15,218 28 1.00
High (>P95) 839 4 2.03 (0.68–5.99)
 RI Normal (≤P95) 15,267 27 1.00
High (>P95) 790 5 2.86 (1.06–7.70)
 EDN No 15,859 30 1.00
Yes 226 3 5.33 (1.56–18.26)
No. of insufficient markers
 0 14,186 24 1.00
 1 663 3 2.50 (0.75–8.34)
 2 872 3 1.79 (0.53–6.04)
 3 and above 326 3 3.59 (0.99–12.95)
Left uterine artery RI and EDN
 Normal RI and without EDN 15,112 26 1.00
 High RI or with EDN 866 6 3.35 (1.34–8.38)
 High RI and with EDN 75 1 6.33 (0.68–41.70)
 Any of high RI and/or with EDN 941 7 3.53 (1.48–8.41)
  1. PI Pulsatility index, RI Resistance index, EDN Early diastolic notching