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Table 1 Characteristics and prevalence of male hypospadias

From: Association of abnormal placental perfusion with the risk of male hypospadias: a hospital-based retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Male Hypospadias (n = 21,447, cases = 43)
Total no. of infants No. of cases Prevalence per 1000 infants (95% CI) P value
Placental perfusiona     .03
 Normal 14,186 24 1.7 (1.0–2.4)  
 Abnormal 1861 9 4.8 (1.7–8.0) .01b
 NA 5400 10 1.9 (0.7–3.0) .81
Preeclampsia     .001
 No 20,275 36 1.8 (1.2–2.4)  
 Yes Mild 960 3 3.1 (0.0–6.7) .26b
Severe 212 4 18.9 (0.4–37.3) .001b
Any 1172 7 6.0 (1.6–10.4) .008b
Maternal age at delivery (year)     .34b
 ≥ 35 2145 5 2.3 (0.3–4.4)  
 25–34 18,224 38 2.1 (1.4–2.7)  
 < 25 1078 0 0  
Residence     .59
 Shanghai 16,536 35 2.1 (1.4–2.8)  
 Other provinces 4884 8 1.6 (0.5–2.8)  
Parity     .14
 Nulliparous 18,099 40 2.2 (1.5–2.9)  
 Multiparous 3348 3 0.9 (0.0–1.9)  
Gestational diabetes mellitus     >.99b
 No 19,616 40 2.0 (1.4–2.7)  
 Yes 1831 3 1.6 (0.0–3.5)  
Assisted conception     .18b
 No 21,061 41 1.9 (1.4–2.5)  
 Yes 386 2 5.2 (0.0–12.3)  
  1. NA APP data not available
  2. a Abnormal perfusion insufficiency was defined as any one abnormality of the six markers, which otherwise were normal; b P values for Fisher’s exact tests