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Table 4 Immediate pregnancy and birth outcomes for the cohort (n = 1111) and comparison group (n = 23,414)

From: Maternal health, pregnancy and birth outcomes for women involved in care proceedings in Wales: a linked data study

Variable Level Cohort n (%) Comparison n (%) p-value
Place of birth Hospital 1105 (99.5) 23,344 (99.7) 0.443
Non-Hospital 5 (0.5) 65 (0.3)  
Mode of birth Spontaneous/unassisted 772 (69.7) 15,371 (65.8) 0.002
Emergency C-Section 137 (12.4) 3210 (13.7)  
Elective C-Section 114 (10.3) 2204 (9.4)  
Forceps 58 (5.2) 1812 (7.8)  
Ventouse 26 (2.3) 777 (3.3)  
Gestational age at onset of labour (mean (SD))a 38.4 (2.4) 39.1 (1.9) < 0.001
Gestational age at onset of labour Premature 153 (14.2) 1550 (6.7) < 0.001
Full term 926 (85.8) 21,429 (93.3)  
Birthweight for full-term babies < 2500 g 74 (8.0) 607 (2.8) < 0.001
2500 g-3999 g 792 (85.2) 18,509 (86.2)  
> = 4000 g 63 (6.8) 2346 (10.9)  
Birthweight for preterm babies (mean (SD))* 2,259.2 (685.7) 2,309.5 (718.7) 0.41
Apgar score < 7 37 (3.4) 442 (1.9) 0.001
> = 7 1043 (96.6) 22,618 (98.1)  
  1. Missing data (n): Place of birth (cohort: 1; comparison: 5); Mode of birth (cohort: 4; comparison: 40); Gestational age at onset of labour (cohort: 32; comparison: 435); Birthweight for full-term babies (cohort: 2; comparison: 33); Birthweight for preterm babies (cohort: 2; comparison: 14); Apgar score (cohort: 31; comparison: 354)
  2. a One-way analysis of variance tests were computed to compare differences in means between the cohort and matched comparison groups. Chi-squared analyses were used to compare all other differences in this table