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Table 4 Risk factors for anemia and IDA

From: Prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency anemia in Chinese pregnant women (IRON WOMEN): a national cross-sectional survey

Factors Anemia: adjusted OR (95% CI)a IDA: adjusted OR (95% CI)b
Trimester
 Second vs. First 4.11 (3.02–5.57) 4.99 (3.13–7.95)
 Third vs. First 6.10 (4.52–8.22) 11.72 (7.43–18.49)
Maternal age (≥35 vs. < 35 years) 1.22 (1.06–1.40)
Local residents (No vs. Yes) 1.18 (1.02–1.36) 1.20 (1.02–1.42)
Multiple gestations (Yes vs. No) 1.54 (1.13–2.09) 1.90 (1.38–2.62)
Parity (Multiparity vs. Nulliparity) 1.18 (1.06–1.31) 1.28 (1.14–1.44)
Pre-pregnancy BMI
 Underweight vs. Normal weight 1.32 (1.17–1.49) 1.30 (1.13–1.49)
 Overweight and obese vs. Normal weight 0.67 (0.57–0.80) 0.62 (0.51–0.77)
NVP
 Slight vs. No 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 1.06 (0.93–1.22)
 Severe vs. No 1.21 (1.04–1.41) 1.21 (1.02–1.44)
Intake of multivitamins (Yes vs. No) 0.58 (0.52–0.65) 0.49 (0.43–0.55)
IDA before pregnancy (Yes vs. No) 2.92 (2.41–3.54) 2.81 (2.28–3.48)
Other hematologic diseases (Yes vs. No) 8.25 (5.19–13.13) 2.00 (1.25–3.20)
Meat intake (kg/week) 0.81 (0.68–0.96) 0.80 (0.65–0.98)
  1. aLogistic mixed regression model adjusting for education level, registered residential place, annual family income, use of ART, and intake of folic acid
  2. bLogistic mixed regression model adjusting for education level, annual family income, intake of folic acid, gynecological diseases, and thyroid diseases
  3. OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; ART assisted reproductive technology; NVP nausea or vomiting during pregnancy; BMI Body Mass Index